Title: Clathrates
Literature References: Compounds that are capable of trapping other substances within their own crystal lattices. The cavities of the host molecules are classified as cages, tunnels, or layered types, depending on the way they include guest molecules. The geometry of the cavities limits the guest molecules by size and shape, rather than by chemical similarity with the host molecules. Among common clathrates are molecular sieves, cyclotriphosphazenes, and Dianin's compound, as well as hydroquinone, cyclodextrins, and deoxycholic acid, q.q.v. Cavitands are organic hosts with enforced (rigid) cavities: D. J. Cram, Science 219, 1177 (1983); R. C. Helgeson et al., Chem. Commun. 1983, 101. Comprehensive book: Clathrate Compounds, V. M. Bhatnagar, Ed. (Chemical Pub. Co., New York, 1970) 244 pp. Reviews: D. D. MacNicol et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 7, 65-87 (1978); E. C. Makin, "Clathration" in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Vol. 6 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1979) pp 178-189.
Use: As complexing agent; stabilizing agent. In analytical separations.

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