Title: Ephedra
Additional Names: Ma Huang
Literature References: Stems and leaves of Ephedra equisetina Bunge, Ephedraceae, E. sinica Stapf. and other Ephedra species. Habit. China, India, Europe. Constit. 0.75-1% ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, N-methylephedrine, q.q.v., (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine, (-)-norephedrine. Used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diaphoretic, stimulant, and antiasthmatic. Brief description: V. E. Tyler in The Honest Herbal (Pharmaceutical Products Press, New York, 3rd ed., 1993) pp 119-121. Pharmacology of psychoactive alkaloids: P. Kalix, J. Ethnopharmacol. 32, 201 (1991). GC determn of alkaloids in Ma Huang preparations: J. M. Betz et al., J. AOAC Int. 80, 303 (1997). Review of cardiovascular and CNS effects of weight-loss supplements containing ephedra: C. A. Haller, N. L. Benowitz, N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 1833-1838 (2000). Review of clinical experience: S. R. Mehendale et al., Am. J. Chin. Med. 32, 1-10 (2004).
Derivative Type: Morman Tea
Additional Names: Brigham tea; teamsters' tea; popotillo; whorehouse tea
Literature References: Fresh or dried stems of Ephedra nevadensis Wats., Ephedraceae, a North American species, generally considered to be alkaloid free. Used by early American settlers as a remedy for venereal disease, colds and kidney disorders. Brief description: V. E. Tyler, loc. cit., 215-216.

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