Isopentyl Alcohol
Title: Isopentyl Alcohol
CAS Registry Number: 123-51-3
CAS Name: 3-Methyl-1-butanol
Additional Names: isoamyl alcohol; isobutyl carbinol; primary isoamyl alcohol; fermentation amyl alcohol
Molecular Formula: C5H12O
Molecular Weight: 88.15
Percent Composition: C 68.13%, H 13.72%, O 18.15%
Line Formula: (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH
Literature References: A major component of commercial amyl alcohol, fusel oil, q.v., and potato-spirit oil. Prepn from butadiene, CO, H2O, plus catalyst: Alderson, US 3020314 (1962 to du Pont); from methylbutenes: Brown, Zweifel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82, 1504 (1960). Early review of metabolism and toxicity: H. W. Haggard et al., J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 27, 1 (1945). Review of manuf by fractionation of fusel oil and via chlorination of pentanes, and properties: W. L. Faith et al., Eds., Industrial Chemicals (John Wiley, New York, 2nd ed., 1957) pp 107-114. Acute toxicity data: Smyth et al., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 30, 470 (1969).
Properties: Liquid; characteristic, disagreeable odor; pungent, repulsive taste. bp760 130.5°. mp -117.2°. d415 0.813. nD20 1.4075. Flash pt, closed cup: 114°F (45°C); open cup: 132°F (55°C). Slightly sol in water (2 g/100 ml at 14°); misc with alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, petr ether, glacial acetic acid, oils. LD50 orally in rats: 7.07 ml/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -117.2°
Boiling point: bp760 130.5°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: 114°F (45°C); open cup: 132°F (55°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4075
Density: d415 0.813
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 7.07 ml/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, nose and throat; headache, dizziness; coughing, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; skin cracking. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 174. See also Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology vol. 2C, G. D. Clayton, F. E. Clayton, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1982) pp 4588-4599.
Use: Solvent for fats, resins, alkaloids, etc.; manuf isoamyl (amyl) compds, isovaleric acid, mercury fulminate, pyroxylin, artificial silk, lacquers, smokeless powders; in microscopy; for dehydrating celloidin solns; for determining fat in milk.

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