Title: Povidone
CAS Registry Number: 9003-39-8
CAS Name: 1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer
Additional Names: 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymers; poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylene]; polyvinylpyrrolidone; polyvidone; PVP
Trademarks: Kollidon (BASF); Luviskol (BASF); Periston (Bayer); Plasdone (ISP); Protagent (Alcon-Thilo)
Literature References: Homopolymer of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, produced commercially as a series of products having mean mol wts ranging from 2,500 to 1,000,000. Prepd by free radical polymerization of the monomer. See J. W. Reppe, Acetylene Chemistry (PB Report 18852-s, U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1949) pp 68-72. Review of clinical use and early literature: W. Wessel et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 21, 1468-1482 (1971); of synthesis and physical properties: H. Warson, Polym. Paint Colour J. 161, 637-644 (1972); F. Haaf et al., Polym. J. 17, 143-152 (1985); of use in cosmetics: F. G. M. Vogel, Soap Cosmet. Chem. Spec. 65, 42-47, 128 (1989). Book: PVP: A Critical Review of the Kinetics and Toxicology of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone), B. V. Robinson et al., Eds. (Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1990) 209 pp. Comprehensive description: C. M. Adeyeye, E. Barabas, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. Excip. 22, 555-685 (1993). Size exclusion chromatography: C. Wu et al., Chromatogr. Sci. Ser. 69, 311 (1995).
Properties: White, hygroscopic powder. Sol in water, alcohol, chloroform, formic acid, acetic acid, N-methylpyrrolidone, methylcyclohexanone, dichloromethane, ethylenediamine, glycerol, diethyleneglycol, PEG 400. Insol in xylene, toluene, diethylether, ethylacetate, acetone, cyclohexanone, chlorobenzene, dioxane, carbon tetrachloride, mineral oil.
Derivative Type: Crospovidone
Additional Names: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone; PVPP
Trademarks: Divergan (BASF); Kollidon CL (BASF); Polyclar (ISP); Polyplasdone XL (ISP)
Literature References: Crosslinked insoluble homopolymer of NVP. Review of properties and applications: A. H. Bronnsack in Proc. Intl. Symp. Povidone, G. A. Digenis, J. Ansell, Eds. (Univ. Kentucky, Coll. Pharmacy, Lexington, 1983) pp 471-490. Comprehensive description: E. S. Barabas, C. M. Adeyeye, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. Excip. 24, 87-163 (1996).
Properties: Free flowing, white, almost tasteless powder. Hygroscopic; swells on contact with water. Insol in water, strong mineral acids, caustic solns, and common organic solvents.
Derivative Type: Monomer
CAS Registry Number: 88-12-0
CAS Name: 1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone
Additional Names: N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone; NVP
Molecular Formula: C6H9NO
Molecular Weight: 111.14
Percent Composition: C 64.84%, H 8.16%, N 12.60%, O 14.40%
Properties: Clear to light straw colored liquid. bp14 96°, bp400 193°. Freezing pt 13.5°. d424 1.04. nD25 1.511. Flash pt (open cup) 100.5°C (213°F). Viscosity (25°): 2.07 cP. Sol in water and many organic solvents.
Boiling point: bp14 96°; bp400 193°
Flash point: Flash pt (open cup) 100.5°C (213°F)
Index of refraction: nD25 1.511
Density: d424 1.04
Derivative Type: Complex with iodine see Povidone-Iodine
Use: Povidone as pharmaceutic aid (dispersing, suspending and viscosity-increasing agent; tablet coating and binder). Thickener, dispersant, lubricant, film-forming agent and binder in cosmetics. Stabilizer, diluent, and dye dispersant in food. Dye dispersant in paper and textiles. Adhesive; paper coating. Coating and processing aid in photographic products. Manuf of plastics and rubber. Cryoprotectant for biological samples. Crospovidone as pharmaceutic aid (tablet binder and disintegrant); clarifying and stabilizing agent in beverages. Monomer as dispersant and wetting agent in pigments.
Therap-Cat: Povidone formerly as a synthetic blood plasma expander. Crospovidone as antidiarrheal.

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