Title: Spandex
Trademarks: Lycra (DuPont); Vyrene (U.S. Rubber)
Literature References: An elastic, segmented polyurethane fiber obtained by the interaction of a diisocyanate with a glycol. The term "segmented" indicates that it is made from a block copolymer in which reasonably long flexible chains are joined to shorter stiff chains through the urethane linkages. Ref: Mod. Text. Mag. 40, 38 (Dec. 1959); Hicks Jr., Am. Dyest. Rep. 52, no. 1, 33 (1963). Book: Moncrieff, Man-Made Fibres (Heywood, London, 4th ed., 1963) pp 396-403. See: US 2692873 (1954 to du Pont) and US 2751363 (1956 to U.S. Rubber). Compare also Smith, US 3061574; Frazer, Shivers US 3071557 (1962, 1963 to du Pont). Historical review of industrial production with extensive patents list: L. Rose, Rep. Prog. Appl. Chem. 51, 609-612 (1966). Monograph: M. McDonald, Spandex Manufacture (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1970) 190 pp.
Properties: All linkages are hydrolytically stable to acids, alkalies.
CAUTION: Can cause allergic contact dermatitis if any diisocyanate is present as impurity.
Use: Snap-back fiber, stronger and lighter than rubber. Used mainly for elastic garments such as belts, girdles, corsets, brassieres, garters, surgical stockings and sock tops. Can be used bare, giving lighter fabrics and eliminating the costly covering process needed for rubber.

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