Title: Thrombomodulin
Literature References: Thrombin-binding protein present on the surface of vascular endothelial cells that modulates the pro- vs anti-coagulant activities of thrombin, q.v. Alters the macromolecular specificity of thrombin, decreasing its ability to catalyze clot formation and converting it to a potent activator of protein C, q.v. Also expressed by platelets, synovial cells, and certain tumor cells. Identification: C. T. Esmon, W. G. Owen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2249 (1981). Isoln from rabbit lung: N. L. Esmon et al., J. Biol. Chem. 257, 859 (1982); from human placenta: H. H. Salem et al., ibid. 259 12246 (1984). Human thrombomodulin is a single-chain glycoprotein containing 559 amino acids; mol wt ~75 kDa. A soluble, truncated form has been isolated from human plasma and urine: H. Ishii, P. W. Majerus, J. Clin. Invest. 76, 2178 (1985). Review: N. L. Esmon, Prog. Hemostasis Thromb. 9, 29-55 (1989); of structure and function: W. A. Dittman, P. W. Majerus, Blood 75, 329-336 (1990); of tissue distribution and expression by tumor cells: L. M. Fink et al., Int. J. Dev. Biol. 37, 221-226 (1993).

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