Bacillus thuringiensis
Title: Bacillus thuringiensis
Additional Names: Bt
Trademarks: Sporeine
Literature References: A gram-positive spore-forming bacterium which during sporulation forms a parasporal protein crystal with insecticidal properties. Various subspecies are used as bioinsecticides against Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera pests. First isolated by Ishiwata in 1902 from dying silkworm larvae. Later isolated as B. thuringiensis, Berliner, from the larvae of the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zell: Berliner, Z. Angew. Entomol. 2, 29 (1915). Characterization of the protein crystal: K. W. Nickerson, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 22, 1305 (1950); C. L. Hannay, Nature 172, 1004 (1953). The protein crystals consist of one or more types of protoxin subunits known as d-endotoxins. Bt also produces an exotoxin which is released in the culture medium during bacterial growth. Isoln and structure of the exotoxin: Sebesta et al., Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 34, 891 (1969); Farkas et al., ibid. 1118. Review of ultrastructure, physiology and biochemistry: L. A. Bulla et al., Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 8, 147-204 (1980); of industrial production: X.-M. Yang, S. S. Wang, Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 28, 95-98 (1998). Review of persistence in soil and effects on non-target organisms: J. A. Addison, Can. J. For. Res. 23, 2329-2342 (1993); of mammalian safety and toxicity studies: J. T. McClintock et al., Pestic. Sci. 45, 95-105 (1995). Review of expression of toxin genes in plant cells: M. Mazier et al. in Biotechnology Annual Review vol. 3, M. R. El-Gewely, Ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1997) pp 313-347; of use in transgenic plants for insect resistance: L. Jouanin et al., Plant Sci. 131, 1-11 (1998).
Derivative Type: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
Trademarks: Skeetal (Valent); Teknar (Certis)
Derivative Type: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
Trademarks: Deliver (Certis); DiPel (Valent); Javelin (Certis); Thuricide (Certis)
Use: Bioinsecticide.

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