Cannabis
Title: Cannabis
Additional Names: Hemp; Indian hemp
Literature References: Annual, dioecious plant, Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinaceae. Used since antiquity for its edible seed, fiber to produce rope and cloth, and medicinally as an analgesic, anti-emetic, hypnotic and intoxicant. Habit. Temporate to tropical regions, originally in central Asia, China and India. Constit. More than 60 known cannabinoids, primarily isomeric tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabidiol, cannabinol, q.q.v.; other constituents include alkaloids, proteins, sugars, steroids, flavonoids and vitamins. Seeds and seed oil contain fatty acids, including linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmetic acids, vitamin E, phytosterols, carotenes. Pistillate plants secrete a cannabinoid containing resin from which hashish or charas is prepared. Preparations of dried flowering tops from these plants are known as bhang, ganja, or marijuana. Comprehensive description of constituents: C. E. Turner et al., J. Nat. Prod. 43, 169-234 (1980). Review of analytical methods: T. J. Raharjo, R. Verpoorte, Phytochem. Anal. 15, 79-94 (2004); of pharmacology and toxicology: I. B. Adams, B. R. Martin, Addiction 91, 1585-1614 (1996). Series of articles on psychiatric effects, pharmacology and therapeutic uses: Br. J. Psychiatry 178, 101-128 (2001). Book: Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, F. Grotenhermen, E. Russo, Eds. (Haworth Press, New York, 2002) 439 pp.
 
Derivative Type: Extract
Manufacturers' Codes: GW-1000
Trademarks: Sativex (GW Pharma)
Literature References: Medicinal preparation containing approximately equal amounts of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Prepn of extracts from dried leaf and flowerhead: B. Whittle, G. Guy, WO 02064109 (2002 to GW Pharma); eidem, US 04192760 (2004). Clinical evaluation for relief of neuropathic pain: J. S. Berman et al., Pain 112, 299 (2004); in multiple sclerosis: C. M. Brady et al., Mult. Scler. 10, 425 (2004). Review of development and clinical experience: P. F. Smith, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 5, 748-754 (2004).
 
CAUTION: This is a controlled substance (hallucinogen): 21 CFR, 1308.11. Acute intoxication is frequently due to recreational use by ingestion or by inhalation of smoke. Psychological responses include euphoria, feelings of detachment and relaxation, visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety, panic, paranoia, depression, drowsiness, psychotic symptoms. Other effects include impairment of cognitive and psychomotor performance, tachycardia, vasodilation, reddening of the conjuctivae, dry mouth, increased appetite. Chronic inhalation of smoke causes respiratory tract irritation and bronchoconstriction, and may be a significant risk factor for lung cancer. See Grotenhermen, Russo, loc. cit.
Therap-Cat: Analgesic.

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