Chloroform
Title: Chloroform
CAS Registry Number: 67-66-3
CAS Name: Trichloromethane
Molecular Formula: CHCl3
Molecular Weight: 119.38
Percent Composition: C 10.06%, H 0.84%, Cl 89.09%
Literature References: Improperly called "formyl trichloride". From the addition of sulfuric acid to acetone and bleaching powder: 2CH3COCH3 + 6CaOCl2.H2O ® 2CHCl3 + (CH3COO)2Ca + 2Ca(OH)2 + 3CaCl2+ 6H2O. May also be prepd by carefully controlled chlorination of methane: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 266-269. Has been used as an anesthetic and in pharmaceutical preparations. Toxicity data: H. F. Smyth et al., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 23, 95 (1962); E. T. Kimura et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 19, 699 (1971). Review of toxicology: L. R. Pohl, Rev. Biochem. Toxicol. 1, 79-108 (1979); of carcinogenic risk: IARC Monographs 20, 401-427 (1979); of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Chloroform (PB98-101140, 1997) 343 pp. Review: M. T. Holbrook in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 5 (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 4th ed., 1993) pp 1051-1062.
Properties: Highly refractive, nonflammable, heavy, very volatile, sweet-tasting liquid; characteristic odor. d2020 1.484. bp 61-62°. mp -63.5°. nD20 1.4476. Forms a constant boiling mixture with 7% alc, boiling at 59°. d 1.474-1.478 for U.S.P. chloroform contg 0.5-1% ethanol as stabilizer. One ml dissolves in about 200 ml water at 25°. Misc with alcohol, benzene, ether, petr ether, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, oils. Pure chloroform is light sensitive and reagent grade chloroform usually contains 0.75% ethanol as stabilizer. Protect from light and keep cool. LD50 (14 day) orally in rats: 2.18 ml/kg (Smyth); 0.9 ml/kg (Kimura).
Melting point: mp -63.5°
Boiling point: bp 61-62°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4476
Density: d2020 1.484; d 1.474-1.478 for U.S.P. chloroform contg 0.5-1% ethanol as stabilizer
Toxicity data: LD50 (14 day) orally in rats: 2.18 ml/kg (Smyth); 0.9 ml/kg (Kimura)
 
Derivative Type: Spirit of Chloroform
Literature References: An alcoholic soln of chloroform contg 6% by vol of chloroform, corresponding to 10.5% by wt, and ~89% abs alcohol by vol. Has been used as a carminative.
Properties: Colorless, clear liquid; chloroform odor. d ~0.85.
Density: d ~0.85
 
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are dizziness, mental dullness, nausea and confusion; headache, fatigue; anesthesia; enlarged liver; direct contact may cause irritation to eyes and skin. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 64. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-54.
Use: In the manuf of fluorocarbon-22. As a solvent for fats, oils, rubber, alkaloids, waxes, gutta-percha, resins; as cleansing agent; in fire extinguishers to lower the freezing temp of carbon tetrachloride; in the rubber industry.

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