Title: Garlic
Additional Names: Allium
Literature References: Strongly scented perennial herb, Allium sativum L., Liliaceae, used extensively in foods and in traditional medicine to treat respiratory infections. Habit. Central Asia, Southern Europe, U.S., cultivated worldwide. Constit. Enzymes, volatile oil (0.1-0.36%), carbohydrates (26-30%), protein and amino acids, lipids, minerals,vitamins, saponins. Upon bruising of the bulb, the enzyme allinase converts alliin to allicin, q.q.v., the source of the garlic odor. Description and uses: A. Y. Leung, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980) pp 176-178. Review of chemistry: E. Block, Sci. Am. 252, 114-119 (March, 1985). Series of articles on cardiovascular effects: Br. J. Clin. Pract. 44, Suppl. 69, 1-39 (1990). Review of antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential in aging: K. Rahman, Ageing Res. Rev. 2, 39-56 (2003).
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8000-78-0
Literature References: Obtained by steam distillation of the crushed bulb. Constit. Ajoene, alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, methyl allyl trisulfide, allyl sulfide, terpenes including citral, geraniol, linalool, a- and b-phellandrene. Brief review: E. Guenther, The Essential Oils vol. 6 (Van Nostrand, New York, 1952) pp 67-69. Comprehensive description: N. A. Shaath et al., Dev. Food Sci. 37B, 2025 (1995).
Properties: Clear yellow to red-orange liquid; strong garlic odor. d2525 1.050-1.095. nD20 1.550-1.580. Sol in most fixed oils, mineral oil, incompletely sol in alcohol. Insol in glycerin, propylene glycol. Keep well closed, cool and protected from light.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.550-1.580
Density: d2525 1.050-1.095
Use: As a spice and seasoning in foods.
Therap-Cat: In treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

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