Title: Ginger
Literature References: Perennial plant, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, with tuberous rhizomes that are widely used in traditional medicine and foods. Habit. Tropical Asia; cultivated in Jamaica, Africa, Australia, most tropical countries. Constit. Volatile oil (1-3%); oleoresin (4-7.5%) containing the pungent gingerols and shogaols; starch (40-60%); proteins (10%); and fats (10%). Chemistry of oil and oleoresin: D. W. Connell et al., Flavour Ind. 1, 677 (1970). Comprehensive review: V. S. Govindarajan, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 17, 1-96; 189-258 (1982). Review of cultivation, processing and uses: B. M. Lawrence, Perfum. Flavor. 9, 1-40 (1984); of history and use: E. Langner et al., Adv. Ther. 15, 25-44 (1998). Review of medicinal uses: J. Gruenwald et al., PDR for Herbal Medicines (Medical Economics, Montvale, 3rd Ed., 2004) pp 362-367; of clinical trials in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: F. Borrelli et al., Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 849 (2005).
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8007-08-7
Additional Names: Oil of ginger
Literature References: Obtained by steam distillation of the dried ground rhizome. Constit: Chiefly, zingiberene (30-70%), b-sesquiphellandrene (15-20%), b-bisabolene (10-15%), a-farnesene, ar-curcumene, d-camphene, phellandrene, borneol, cineol, citral.
Properties: Yellowish, viscid liquid. d2525 0.870-0.882. Angular rotation: -28 to -47°. nD20 1.488-1.494. Sol in most fixed oils, mineral oil, in alcohol with turbidity. Insol in glycerin, propylene glycol.
Optical Rotation: Angular rotation: -28 to -47°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.488-1.494
Density: d2525 0.870-0.882
Use: Flavor in foods and beverages.
Therap-Cat: Antiemetic; carminative.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Carminative.

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