Title: Ginkgo
Additional Names: Maidenhair tree; kew tree
Literature References: Ginkgo biloba Linn; the only living member of the Ginkgoaceae. Valued as a street and park tree, the ripe fruit gives off a foul odor. The seeds and leaves have been used in traditional medicine for asthma and vascular disease. Habit. China, Japan, cultivated in Eastern U.S. and Canada. A wide variety of compounds have been identified in the fruit, leaves and bark including: ginkgolides, bilobalide, q.q.v., biflavones, flavonol glycosides. Fruit pulp contains toxic principles: ginkgolic acid, ginkgol, bilobol. Analysis of constituents of leaves: S. Furukawa, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 19, 27 (1932); 21, 273 (1933), C.A. 27, 303, 5745 (1933). Isoln and characterization of biflavonyl constituents of ginkgo leaves: W. Baker et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1963, 1477; of phenolic constituents: K. Weinges et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 18, 539 (1968). Isoln of ginkgolides from root bark: M. Maruyama et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 1967, 299-326. HPLC determn of biflavones in leaf extracts: F. Briançon-Scheid et al., Planta Med. 49, 204 (1983); of terpenes: P. G. Pietta et al., Chromatographia 29, 251 (1990). HPLC fingerprint analysis of leaf extracts: Y.-B. Ji et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1066, 97 (2005). Reviews: W. Tang, G. Eisenbrand, Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992) pp 555-565; P. Houghton, Pharm. J. 253, 122-123 (1994).
Derivative Type: EGb 761
Additional Names: Extractum Ginkgo biloba 761
Trademarks: Rökan (Intersan); Tanakan (Ipsen); Tebonin (Schwabe)
Literature References: A defined extract obtained from the leaves: P. Kloss, H. Jaggy, DE 2117429 (1972 to Willmar Schwabe), C.A. 78, 47787 (1973). Clinical evaluation in arterial insufficiency: U. Bauer, Arzneim.-Forsch. 34, 716 (1984). Clinical trial in dementia: P. L. Le Bars et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 278, 1327 (1997). Book: F. V. DeFeudis, Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761): Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Applications (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991) 187 pp.
Therap-Cat: Nootropic. In treatment of vascular insufficiency.

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