Title: Nickel
CAS Registry Number: 7440-02-0
Literature References: Ni; at. wt 58.6934; at. no. 28; valence 2; seldom 1, 3, 4. Group VIII (10). Naturally occurring isotopes (mass numbers): 58 (68.27%), 60 (26.10%), 61 (1.13%), 62 (3.59%), 64 (0.91%); known artificial radioactive isotopes: 53, 55-57, 59 (longest-lived known isotope, T½ 7.5 ´ 104 years, decay by electron capture), 63, 65-67. Abundance in earth's crust 99 ppm. Discovered by Cronstedt in 1754: Cronstedt, Mineralogie (Stockholm, 1758) p 218. Isoln: Berthier, Ann. Chim. Phys. [2] 14, 52 (1820); 25, 94 (1824). Occurs free in meteorites. Found in many ores as sulfides, arsenides, antimonides and oxides or silicates; chief sources include chalcopyrite, q.v., pyrrhotite, pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8] and garnierite [3(Mg,Ni)O.2SiO2.2H2O]; other ores include niccolite (NiAs) and millerite (NiS). Methods of extraction and purification: Mackiw, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 46, 3 (1968); Houot, Ann. Mines 1969 (April), 9; Queneau, J. Met. 22, 44-48 (1970). Prepn of high purity nickel: Wise, Schaefer, Metals Alloys 16, 424 (1924); from NiO and H2: Glemser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry vol. 2, G. Brauer, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1965) pp 1543-1544; by electrolysis: Vu Quang Kinh, Nardin, C.R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. C 266, 307 (1968). Comprehensive reviews: Gmelins, Nickel (8th ed.) 57, 5 vols, about 3500 pp (1965-1967); Nicholls in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry vol. 3, J. C. Bailar, Jr. et al., Eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973) pp 1109-1161; J. K. Tien, T. E. Howson in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 15 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1981) pp 787-801; Chemistry of the Elements N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Eds. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1984) pp 1328-1363. Book: Nickel Toxicology, S. S. Brown, F. W. Sunderman, Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1980) 193 pp. Review of carcinogenic risk: IARC Monographs 11, 75-112 (1976); of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Nickel (PB2006-100005, 2005) 397 pp.
Properties: Lustrous white, hard, ferromagnetic metal; face-centered cubic crystals. mp 1453°. bp (calc) 2732°. Also reported as bp (calc) 2837° (3110 K): D. R. Stull, G. C. Sinke, Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements, Advances in Chemistry Series 18 (A.C.S., Washington, 1956). d 8.908. Heat capacity (25°) 6.23 cal/g-atom/°C. Mohs' hardness 3.8. Latent heat of fusion 73 cal/g. Electrical resistivity (20°): 6.844 mohms-cm. E°(aq) Ni/Ni2+ 0.250 V. Stable in air at ordinary temp; burns in oxygen, forming NiO; not affected by water; decomposes steam at a red heat. Slowly attacked by dil hydrochloric or sulfuric acid; readily attacked by nitric acid. Not attacked by fused alkali hydroxides.
Melting point: mp 1453°
Boiling point: bp (calc) 2732°; bp (calc) 2837° (3110 K): D. R. Stull, G. C. Sinke, Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements, Advances in Chemistry Series 18 (A.C.S., Washington, 1956)
Density: d 8.908
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are sensitization dermatitis, allergic asthma, pneumonitis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 224. See also Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology vol. 2C, G. D. Clayton, F. E. Clayton, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 4th ed., 1994) 2157-2173. Metallic nickel is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen; nickel compounds are listed as known human carcinogens: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-181.
Use: Nickel-plating; for various alloys such as new silver, Chinese silver, German silver; for coins, electrotypes, storage batteries; magnets, lightning-rod tips, electrical contacts and electrodes, spark plugs, machinery parts; catalyst for hydrogenation of oils and other organic substances. See also Raney nickel. Manuf of Monel metal, stainless steels, heat resistant steels, heat and corrosion resistant alloys, nickel-chrome resistance wire; in alloys for electronic and space applications.

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