Nitromethane
Title: Nitromethane
CAS Registry Number: 75-52-5
Additional Names: Nitrocarbol
Molecular Formula: CH3NO2
Molecular Weight: 61.04
Percent Composition: C 19.68%, H 4.95%, N 22.95%, O 52.42%
Literature References: Prepd by the interaction of sodium nitrite and sodium chloroacetate: Whitmore, Org. Synth. 3, 83 (1923). Monograph: Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 22, 518 (1961). Toxicity study: Weatherby, Arch. Ind. Health 11, 102 (1955).
Properties: Oily liquid with a moderately strong, somewhat disagreeable odor. d425 1.1322. One gallon weighs 9.5 lbs. Flash pt 112°F. mp -29°. bp760 101.2°; bp100 46.6°; bp40 27.5°; bp20 14.1°; bp10 2.8°; bp5 -7.9°; bp1.0 -29°. nD22 1.38056. Absorption spectrum: Hantzsch, Voigt, Ber. 45, 106 (1912). Slightly sol in water (9.5% by vol at 20°); sol in alc, ether, DMF. Water solns are acid to litmus. pH of 0.01M aq soln 6.12. Forms an explosive sodium salt which bursts into flame on contact with water. LC (in air) in guinea pigs: 1000 ppm; LD50 orally in mice: 1.44 g/kg (Weatherby).
Melting point: mp -29°
Boiling point: bp760 101.2°; bp100 46.6°; bp40 27.5°; bp20 14.1°; bp10 2.8°; bp5 -7.9°; bp1.0 -29°
Flash point: Flash pt 112°F
Index of refraction: nD22 1.38056
Density: d425 1.1322
Toxicity data: LC (in air) in guinea pigs: 1000 ppm; LD50 orally in mice: 1.44 g/kg (Weatherby)
CAUTION: Potential symptom of overexposure is dermatitis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 230. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-193.
Use: Rocket fuel; solvent for zein. Used in the coating industry.

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