Orthoformic Acid
Title: Orthoformic Acid
CAS Registry Number: 463-78-5
CAS Name: Methanetriol
Additional Names: trihydroxymethane
Molecular Formula: CH4O3
Molecular Weight: 64.04
Percent Composition: C 18.75%, H 6.30%, O 74.95%
Literature References: Hypothetical compd, illustrated for nomenclature purposes only. The hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups are replaceable with alkyl groups giving rise to orthoformic esters, which are real compds (produced by various syntheses, e.g. from sodium alcoholates and chloroform). Monograph: H. W. Post, The Chemistry of the Aliphatic Orthoesters (Reinhold, New York, 1943), 188 pp.
 
Derivative Type: Trimethyl ester
CAS Registry Number: 149-73-5
CAS Name: Trimethoxymethane
Additional Names: methyl orthoformate
Molecular Formula: C4H10O3
Molecular Weight: 106.12
Percent Composition: C 45.27%, H 9.50%, O 45.23%
Literature References: Prepd from chloroform and methanol in presence of sodium: Sah, Ma, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 54, 2965 (1932).
Properties: Liquid. d420 0.9676; d425 0.9623. bp760 100.6°. nD25 1.3773.
Boiling point: bp760 100.6°
Index of refraction: nD25 1.3773
Density: d420 0.9676; d425 0.9623
 
Derivative Type: Triethyl ester
CAS Registry Number: 122-51-0
CAS Name: 1,1¢,1¢¢-[Methylidynetris(oxy)]tris[ethane]
Additional Names: ethyl orthoformate; triethoxymethane; triethyl orthoformate
Trademarks: Aethone (Sopar)
Molecular Formula: C7H16O3
Molecular Weight: 148.20
Percent Composition: C 56.73%, H 10.88%, O 32.39%
Literature References: Prepd from chloroform and ethanol in presence of sodium: Chu, Shen, C.A. 38, 29307 (1944). Toxicity study: H. F. Smyth et al., Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 4, 119 (1951).
Properties: Liquid, sweetish odor resembling that of pine needles. d420 0.8909; d425 0.8858. bp765 143°. mp <-18°. nD25 1.3900. Slightly sol in water with decompn; misc with alcohol, ether. LD50 orally in rats: 7.06 g/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp <-18°
Boiling point: bp765 143°
Index of refraction: nD25 1.3900
Density: d420 0.8909; d425 0.8858
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 7.06 g/kg (Smyth)

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