Pennyroyal
Title: Pennyroyal
Additional Names: European pennyroyal
Literature References: Perennial herb, Mentha pulegium, L., Labiatae. Medicinal portions are the fresh or dried leaves and flowering tops and the essential oil; traditionally used as an emmenagogue and abortifacient. Habit. Mediterranean region. Constit. Volatile oil (1-2%); tannins such as rosmaric acid; flavonoids incl. diosmin, hesperidin. Also used is the closely related American pennyroyal, Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers., Labiatae. Fragrance monograph: D. L. J. Opdyke, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12, 949 (1974). Extraction processes and composition of oil: N. Aghel et al., Talanta 62, 407 (2004). Review of toxicology: I. B. Anderson et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 124, 726-734 (1996); of components and pharmacology: J. Barnes et al., Herbal Medicines (Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2nd Ed., 2002) pp 372-373; J. Gruenwald et al., PDR for Herbal Medicines (Medical Economics, Montvale, 3rd Ed., 2004) pp 627-628.
 
Derivative Type: Pennyroyal oil
CAS Registry Number: 8013-99-8
Additional Names: Oil of pennyroyal; oil of pulegium
Literature References: Volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh or partially dried plant. Constit. Pulegone (60-90%), menthone, isomenthone, piperitone.
Properties: Light yellow to yellow liquid; aromatic mint-like odor; aromatic taste. d2525 0.928-0.940. nD20 1.483-1.488. Rotation: +18° to +25°. Sol in most fixed oils, propylene glycol, in 2 vols 70% alcohol, with cloudiness in mineral oil. Practically insol in glycerin. LD50 orally in rats: 0.4 g/kg; dermally in rabbits: 4.2 g/kg (Opdyke). Keep well closed, cool and protected from light.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.483-1.488
Density: d2525 0.928-0.940
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 0.4 g/kg; dermally in rabbits: 4.2 g/kg (Opdyke)
 
Derivative Type: American pennyroyal oil
CAS Registry Number: 8007-44-1
Additional Names: Oil of hedeoma
Literature References: Volatile oil from leaves and flowering tops of H. pulegioides. Constit. Chiefly pulegone, menthone, isomenthone, acetic, formic, butyric, salicylic acids.
Properties: Pale yellow liquid; herbaceous, mint-like odor; bitter, slightly burning taste. d1515 0.925-0.940. Rotation: +18° to +35°. nD20 1.482. Slightly sol in water; sol in 2 vols 70% alcohol; very sol in chloroform, ether.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.482
Density: d1515 0.925-0.940
 
CAUTION: Hepatotoxic. Ingestion of large quantities may cause vomiting, blood pressure elevation, anesthetic-like paralysis, death through respiratory failure (Gruenwald).
Use: Fragrance component in soaps, perfumes; flavoring agent; insect repellent.

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