Pentamidine
Title: Pentamidine
CAS Registry Number: 100-33-4
CAS Name: 4,4¢-[1,5-Pentanediylbis(oxy)]bisbenzenecarboximidamide
Additional Names: 4,4¢-(pentamethylenedioxy)dibenzamidine; 4,4¢-diamidino-a,w-diphenoxypentane
Molecular Formula: C19H24N4O2
Molecular Weight: 340.42
Percent Composition: C 67.04%, H 7.11%, N 16.46%, O 9.40%
Literature References: Prepn: A. J. Ewins, GB 507565 (1939); J. N. Ashley et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1942, 103; of isethionate: G. Newbery, A. P. T. Easson, US 2394003 (1946 to May & Baker). Trypanocidal activity: E. M. Lourie, W. Yorke, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 33, 289 (1939). Preliminary pharmacological studies in animals: R. Wien, ibid. 37, 1 (1943). Activity in fibrinolytic systems: J. D. Geratz, Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. 29, 154 (1973). Pharmacodynamics in men and mice: T. P. Waalkes et al., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 11, 505 (1970). In vitro activity against Pneumocystis carinii: E. L. Pesanti, C. Cox, Infect. Immun. 34, 908 (1981). Uptake and distribution of aerosolized form in animals: R. J. Debs et al., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 135, 731 (1987). In vivo efficacy of aerosolized form in rats: eidem, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 37 (1987). Determn in plasma, urine and tissues: T. P. Waalkes, V. T. DeVita, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 75, 871 (1970); by HPLC: C. M. Dickinson et al., J. Chromatogr. 345, 91 (1985). Preliminary clinical evaluation in P. carinii pneumonia: V. T. DeVita et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 280, 287 (1968). Comparison with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim mixture in P. carinii pneumonia in AIDS: J. M. Wharton et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 105, 37 (1986). Early review of pharmacology, mode of action and clinical applications: E. B. Schoenbach, E. M. Greenspan, Medicine 27, 327-377 (1948). Review: S. Drake et al., Clin. Pharm. 4, 507-516 (1985); M. Sands et al., Rev. Infect. Dis. 7, 625-634 (1985); of activity, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic use: K. L. Goa, D. M. Campoli-Richards, Drugs 33, 242-258 (1987).
Properties: Crystallizes as colorless plates from water. Dec 186°.
 
Derivative Type: Dihydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 50357-45-4
Molecular Formula: C19H24N4O2.2HCl
Molecular Weight: 413.34
Percent Composition: C 55.21%, H 6.34%, N 13.55%, O 7.74%, Cl 17.15%
Properties: Fine needles from dil HCl, mp 232-234°. LD50 in mice (mg/g): 0.028 i.v.; 0.064 s.c. (Wein).
Melting point: mp 232-234°
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice (mg/g): 0.028 i.v.; 0.064 s.c. (Wein)
 
Derivative Type: Isethionate
CAS Registry Number: 140-64-7
Manufacturers' Codes: M & B 800; RP-2512
Trademarks: NebuPent (Astellas); Pentacarinat (Sanofi-Aventis); Pentam (Astellas)
Molecular Formula: C19H24N4O2.2C2H6O4S
Properties: Hygroscopic, very bitter crystals, mp ~180°. Slight butyric odor. Sol in water (~1 in 10 at 25°, ~1 in 4 at 100°); sol in glycerol, more readily on warming; slightly sol in alcohol. Insol in ether, acetone, chloroform, liq petr. pH of a 5% w/v soln in water: 4.5 to 6.5.
Melting point: mp ~180°
 
Derivative Type: Dimethanesulfonate
CAS Registry Number: 6823-79-6
Additional Names: Pentamidine mesylate
Molecular Formula: C19H24N4O2.2CH3SO3H
Properties: White powder.
 
Therap-Cat: Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma, Leishmania); antipneumocystic.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antiprotozoal (Babesia, Leishmania).
Keywords: Antipneumocystic; Antiprotozoal (Leishmania); Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma).

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