Poloxamers
Title: Poloxamers
CAS Registry Number: 106392-12-5
CAS Name: Methyloxirane block polymer with oxirane
Additional Names: polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol block copolymer; a-hydro-w-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene)poly(oxypropylene)poly(oxyethylene) block copolymer
Literature References: Series of nonionic surfactants with the structure HO(CH2CH2O)a(CH(CH3)CH2O)b(CH2CH2O)cH where b is at least 15, a and c are approximately equal and the polyoxyethylene content is 10 to 80% of the total polymer weight. Mol wt ranges from 1000 to >16,000. The polyoxypropylene segment is hydrophobic; the polyoxyethylene segment hydrophilic. Prepn: L. G. Lundsted, US 2674619 (1954 to Wyandotte). Comprehensive description of manufacture and properties: I. R. Schmolka in Nonionic Surfactants, M. Schick, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1967) pp 300-371; I. F. Paterson et al. in Handbook of Engineering Polymeric Materials, N. P. Cheremisinoff, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997) pp 765-774. Review of chemistry and medical applications: L. E. Reeve in Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers, A. J. Domb et al., Eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1997) pp 231-249.
Properties: Mobile liquids, pastes or flakeable solids. Relatively nonhygroscopic. Vary from water-insol to very water-sol compds; more sol in cold than hot water. Low-foaming properties. Stable to acids, alkalies, metallic ions.
 
Derivative Type: Poloxalene
CAS Registry Number: 9003-11-6
Manufacturers' Codes: SKF-18667
Trademarks: Bloat Guard (Phibro); Therabloat (Pfizer)
Literature References: a = 12, b = 34, c = 12; av. mol wt 3000. Use in treatment of ruminant bloat: E. E. Bartley, G. C. Scott, US 3465083 (1969 to Kansas State Univ. and SKF). Comparative field trial in cattle: W. Majak et al., J. Anim. Sci. 73, 1493 (1995).
 
Derivative Type: Poloxamer 182
Trademarks: Pluronic L62
Properties: a = 8, b = 30, c = 8; av. mol wt 2500. Liquid, mp -4°. d2525 1.03. Brookfield viscosity (25°): 450 cP; cloud pt (10% aq soln): 24°. Sol in water, ethanol, toluene. Insol in kerosene, ethylene glycol.
Melting point: mp -4°
Density: d2525 1.03
 
Derivative Type: Poloxamer 188
Trademarks: Exocorpol (Green Cross); Pluronic F68 (BASF); Synperonic PE/F68 (ICI)
Properties: a = 75, b = 30, c = 75; av. mol wt 8400. Flakeable solid. mp 52°. Brookfield viscosity (77°): 1000 cP; cloud pt (10% aq soln): >100°. Sol in water, ethanol; partially sol in toluene. Insol in kerosene, ethylene glycol.
Melting point: mp 52°
 
Derivative Type: Poloxamer 331
Trademarks: Pluronic L101 (BASF)
Properties: a = 7, b = 54, c = 7; av. mol wt 3800. Liquid, mp -23°. d2525 1.018; Brookfield viscosity (25°): 800 cP; cloud pt (10% aq soln): 11°. Sol in ethanol, toluene. Insol in water, kerosene, ethylene glycol.
Melting point: mp -23°
Density: d2525 1.018
 
Derivative Type: Purified Poloxamer 188
Trademarks: Flocor (CytRx)
Literature References: Highly purified pharmaceutical grade for intravenous use; lowers blood viscosity and improves blood flow. Pharmacology: R. M. Emanuele, Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs 7, 1193-1200 (1998). Clinical trial in sickle cell disease: E. P. Orringer et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 286, 2099 (2001).
 
Use: Pharmaceutic aids; food additives; defoamers; antistatic agents; demulsifiers; detergents, wetting agents, gelling agents; emulsifiers; foam controllers; dispersants; dye levelers.
Therap-Cat: Poloxamer 188 as hemorheologic agent.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Poloxalene in prevention of bloat in cattle.

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