Propionitrile
Title: Propionitrile
CAS Registry Number: 107-12-0
CAS Name: Propanenitrile
Additional Names: ethyl cyanide
Molecular Formula: C3H5N
Molecular Weight: 55.08
Percent Composition: C 65.42%, H 9.15%, N 25.43%
Line Formula: CH3CH2CN
Literature References: Prepd by dehydration of propionamide (or propionic acid + NH3) or by distilling ethyl sulfate and concd aq KCN, also by reduction of acrylonitrile. Studies as duodenal ulcerogen in rats: S. Szabo et al., Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 16, 311 (1977); L. M. Lichtenberger et al., Gastroenterology 73, 1305 (1977). Toxicity study: H. F. Smyth et al., Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 4, 119 (1951).
Properties: Liquid. Poisonous when heated to decompn or on contact with acids. Pleasant, ethereal, sweetish odor. d40 0.8020; d420 0.7818; d430 0.7716; d456 0.7515; d470.2 0.7291. mp -91.8°. bp760 97.2°; bp400 77.7°; bp200 58.2°; bp100 41.4°; bp60 30.1°; bp40 22.0°; bp20 8.8°; bp10 -3.0°; bp5 -13.6°; bp1.0 -35.0°. nD15 1.36812; nD20 1.36585; nD30 1.36132. Soly in water at 40° = 11.9 g/100 g H2O; at 100° = 29 g/100 g H2O. Misc with alcohol, ether, DMF. LD50 orally in rats: 39 mg/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -91.8°
Boiling point: bp760 97.2°; bp400 77.7°; bp200 58.2°; bp100 41.4°; bp60 30.1°; bp40 22.0°; bp20 8.8°; bp10 -3.0°; bp5 -13.6°; bp1.0 -35.0°
Index of refraction: nD15 1.36812; nD20 1.36585; nD30 1.36132
Density: d40 0.8020; d420 0.7818; d430 0.7716; d456 0.7515; d470.2 0.7291
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 39 mg/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; nausea, vomiting; chest pains; weakness, stupor, convulsions. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 266.

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