Title: Propolis
Additional Names: Bee glue
Literature References: Resinous substance of complex composition produced by bees for use in construction and protection of hives. Used in traditional folk medicine for its broad spectrum biological activities. Constit. 50% resin and vegetable balsam, 30% wax, 10% essential and aromatic oils, 5% pollen, and 5% other substances, including organic debris. Analysis by LC-MS: K. Midorikawa et al., Phytochem. Anal. 12, 366 (2001). Review of the origin, chemical constituents and therapeutic activity: M. H. Haydak, State of Iowa, Repts. State Apiarist 1953, p 74-87; M. Vanhaelen, R.Vanhaelen-Fastre, J. Pharm. Belg. 34, 253 (1979); of composition and toxicology: G. A. Burdock, Food Chem. Toxicol. 36, 347-363 (1998); of plant sources and chemical constituents: V. S. Bankova et al., Apidologie 31, 3-15 (2000). Review of biological activities and therapeutic use: S. L. De Castro, ARBS Annu. Rev. Biomed. Sci. 3, 49-83 (2001); of pharmacology and mechanism of action: A. H. Banskota et al., Phytother. Res. 15, 561-571 (2001).
Properties: Yellow-green to dark brown material. Aromatic odor. Hard and brittle when cold; soft and sticky when warm. Extraction with alcohol yields the insol propolis wax and alcohol sol propolis balsam.

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