Royal Jelly
Title: Royal Jelly
Additional Names: Queen bee jelly; apilak; Weiselfuttersaft (German); Gelée royale (French)
Literature References: Secretion from the salivary glands of the worker honey bee which is essential for the development of queen bees. See also Queen Substance. Production from bee hives: Ritschel, Oesterr. Drogisten-Ztg. 12, 4-7 (1958). Synthetic mixture fed to bee larvae maintains life, but does not produce queens. The presence of hormones affecting mammals has not been demonstrated: Hinglais, Gautherie, Compt. Rend. 242, 2483 (1956). No practical utility in human nutrition because of the very large amounts required for any definite effect: Moreaux, Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy 14, 49-53 (1955), C.A. 50, 13214f (1956). Review of composition and biological activity: A. D. Dayan, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 12, 377-383 (1960). Monographs: B. deBelvefer, Royal Jelly (Paris, Librairie Maloine, 1958) 270 pp; H. Rembold, Biologically Active Substances in Royal Jelly in Vitam. Horm. 23, 359-382 (1965).
Properties: Milky white, highly viscous secretion. Analysis of fresh specimen (% wt at pH 5): moisture 65-70, protein 15-20, carbohydrate 10-15, lipid 1.7-6, ash 0.7-2.0; elemental analysis: P up to 0.5, S up to 0.6; trace elements present: Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ca. Vitamins (mg/g): thiamine 2, riboflavine 10, pyridoxine 2, nicotinic acid 75, biotin 2, folic acid 0.3, inositol 100, pantothenic acid 250, ascorbic acid 3-5, vitamin D trace, vitamin E trace. When stored at room temp, changes to a lightly yellow gum, and after some weeks, to a brittle amber solid.
 
Derivative Type: Royal jelly acid
Additional Names: trans-10-Hydroxy-D2-decenoic acid
Molecular Formula: C10H18O3
Molecular Weight: 186.25
Percent Composition: C 64.49%, H 9.74%, O 25.77%
Literature References: Constitutes ~10% of the dried royal jelly. Isoln: Townsend, Lucas, Biochem. J. 34, 1155 (1940); Butenandt, Rembold, Z. Physiol. Chem. 308, 284 (1957). Synthesis: Fray et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 4, 15 (1960); Smissman et al., J. Org. Chem. 29, 3517 (1964); Bestmann et al., Ann. 699, 33 (1966); J. Tsuji et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2507 (1977); T. Fujisawa et al., Chem. Lett. 1982, 219; R. Chiron, J. Chem. Ecol. 8, 709 (1982). Leukemia prevention in mice: Townsend et al., Nature 183, 1270 (1959).
Properties: Prisms from ether + petr ether or methanol + water, mp 64-65°. uv max: 211 nm (e 12000).
Melting point: mp 64-65°
Absorption maximum: uv max: 211 nm (e 12000)

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