Serum Albumin
Title: Serum Albumin
CAS Registry Number: 9048-46-8
Literature References: Most abundant of the plasma proteins (comprising ~60%). Structure characterized as a single, carbohydrate-free polypeptide chain consisting of 580-585 amino acid residues; stabilized by seventeen S-S bridges. Main biological functions include maintenance of osmotic pressure and the transport of sparingly soluble physiological and pharmacological substances, esp long-chain fatty acids and bilirubin. Trace amounts present in normal urine, excreted as the major protein constit in the condition of proteinuria. Review of determn in serum and plasma: P. G. Hill, Ann. Clin. Biochem. 22, 565-578 (1985); of biosynthesis and biological function: M. A. Rothschild et al., Hepatology 8, 385-401 (1988); of structural studies: D. C. Carter, J. X. Ho, Adv. Protein Chem. 45, 153-203 (1994).
 
Derivative Type: Human serum albumin
Additional Names: HSA
Trademarks: Albuminar (ZLB Behring); Buminate (Baxter); Pro-Bumin (Probitas)
Literature References: Review of biochemistry and clinical experience: Proceedings of the Workshop on Albumin, J. T. Sgouris, A. René, Eds. (DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-925, 1975) 355 pp; of therapeutic use: G. E. Hastings, P. G. Wolf, Arch. Fam. Med. 1, 281-287 (1992).
Properties: Mol wt 65,000. Net charge per molecule (pH 7.4) -19. High solubility at neutrality: 30% solns prepd in water, 40% solns prepd in methanol or ethanol. Below pH 3, sol in 80-100% methanol, ethanol or acetone. Low viscosity. Stable, even at high temperatures.
 
Derivative Type: 131I-labelled form
Additional Names: Iodinated (131I) human serum albumin; 131I HSA
Trademarks: Albumotope-131I (Bracco)
Properties: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. Contains not more than one atom of iodine per molecule of albumin. Physical and chemical properties essentially the same as those of albumin. Stable at 10° for at least 3 weeks. Supplied for injection in aq isotonic sodium chloride soln.
 
Derivative Type: Sonicated human serum albumin
CAS Registry Number: 150103-82-5
Trademarks: Albunex (Molecular Biosystems)
Literature References: Suspension of air filled albumin microspheres in a 5% (w/v) human albumin soln. Prepn: M. W. Keller et al., J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 12, 1039 (1988); D. Cerny et al., EP 359246; eidem, US 4957656 (both 1990 to Molecular Biosystems). Pharmacology: M. W. Keller et al., J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2, 48 (1989). Diagnostic use in echocardiography: L. J. Crouse et al., J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 22, 1494 (1993). Physical and biochemical properties: C. Christiansen et al., Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 19, 307 (1994). Review: N. Sponheim et al., IEEE Conf. Publ., Acoustic Sensing and Imaging 369, 103-108 (1993).
Properties: pH 6.79-6.86. Osmolality 253-264 mmol/kg. Viscosity 1.44.
 
Therap-Cat: Plasma volume expander; treatment of hypoproteinemia. 131I-labelled form as diagnostic aid (blood volume determination). Sonicated form as diagnostic aid (ultrasound contrast agent).
Keywords: Diagnostic Aid (Ultrasound Contrast Agent); Plasma Volume Expander.

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