Somatotropin
Title: Somatotropin
CAS Registry Number: 9002-72-6
Additional Names: Adenohypophyseal growth hormone; GH; hypophyseal growth hormone; anterior pituitary growth hormone; growth hormone; phyone; pituitary growth hormone; somatotropic hormone; STH
Literature References: Species-specific anabolic protein that promotes somatic growth, stimulates protein synthesis, and regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Increases serum levels of somatomedins, q.v. Secreted by the anterior pituitary under the regulation of the hypothalamic hormones, somatoliberin and somatostatin, q.q.v. Growth hormones from various species differ in amino acid sequence, antigenicity, isoelectric point, and in the range of animals in which they can produce biological responses. Isoln from bovine anterior pituitary substance: C. H. Li et al., J. Biol. Chem. 159, 353 (1945); A. E. Wilhelmi et al., ibid. 176, 735 (1948); C. H. Li, US 3118815 (1964 to Upjohn). Isoln from human pituitaries: Lewis, Brink, US 2974088 (1961 to Merck & Co.); Reisfeld et al., Endocrinology 71, 559 (1962). Amino acid sequence of human growth hormone (HGH): C. H. Li et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88, 2050 (1966); eidem, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 133, 70 (1969). Total synthesis: C. H. Li, D. Yamashiro, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 7608 (1970). Revised sequence of HGH: H. D. Niall, Nature New Biol. 230, 90 (1971). Review of structural studies and comparison with the lactogenic hormones: H. D. Niall et al., Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 29, 387-416 (1973). Review of protein chemistry: C. H. Li, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 46, 31-41 (1982). Cloning and expression of cDNA for HGH in E. coli: D. V. Goeddel et al., Nature 281, 544 (1979); D. V. Goeddel, H. L. Heyneker, BE 884012; eidem, US 4342832 (1980, 1982 both to Genentech); in mammalian cells: G. N. Pavakis et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 7398 (1981). Purification and bioactivity of recombinant HGH: K. C. Olson et al., Nature 293, 408 (1981). Clinical comparison of natural and recombinant HGH: R. L. Hintz et al., Lancet 1, 1276 (1982). Use of recombinant bovine GH to increase milk production in cows: D. E. Bauman et al., J. Dairy Sci. 68, 1352 (1985). Discussion of use of recombinant GH in applied animal agriculture: J. L. Burton, B. W. McBride, J. Agric. Ethics 2, 129-159 (1989). Review of GH gene studies: D. D. Moore et al., Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 38, 197-225 (1982). Review of bioregulation of HGH secretion: D. G. Johnston et al., J. R. Soc. Med. 78, 319-327 (1985); of mechanism of action on target cells: O. G. P. Isaksson et al., Annu. Rev. Physiol. 47, 483-499 (1985). Symposium on pharmacology and clinical efficacy: Horm. Res. 33, Suppl. 4, 1-107 (1990). Books: Growth and Growth Hormone, A. Pecile, E. Muller, Eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1972); Human Growth Hormone and Gonadotrophins in Health and Disease, P. Franchimont, H. Burger, Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1975) 494 pp; Growth Hormone and Other Biologically Active Peptides, A. Pecile, E. Muller, Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1980); Evaluation of Growth Hormone Secretion, Z. Laron, O. Butenandt, Eds. (S. Karger, New York, 1983); Use of Somatotropin in Livestock Production, K. Sejrsen et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1989).
 
Derivative Type: Human growth hormone
CAS Registry Number: 12629-01-5
Additional Names: HGH; somatropin
Manufacturers' Codes: CB-311
Trademarks: Crescormon (Pharmacia); Genotropin (Pharmacia & Upjohn); Grorm (Serono); Humatrope (Lilly); Nanormon (Novo); Norditropin (Novo); Nutropin (Genentech); Nutropinaq (Ipsen); Saizen (Serono); Umatrope (Lilly); Zomacton (Ferring)
Molecular Formula: C990H1529N263O299S7
Molecular Weight: 22123.77
Percent Composition: C 53.75%, H 6.97%, N 16.65%, O 21.62%, S 1.01%
Properties: A single polypeptide chain of 191 amino acids having a molecular weight of 22,124. Isoelectric point 4.9. [a]25 -38.7° (0.1M acetic acid).
Optical Rotation: [a]25 -38.7° (0.1M acetic acid)
 
Derivative Type: Methionyl human growth hormone
CAS Registry Number: 82030-87-3
Additional Names: Somatrem; met-HGH
Trademarks: Protropin (Genentech); Somatonorm (Pfizer)
Molecular Formula: C995H1537N263O301S8
Molecular Weight: 22255.95
Percent Composition: C 53.70%, H 6.96%, N 16.55%, O 21.64%, S 1.15%
Properties: Produced in bacteria from recombinant DNA. Contains the complete amino acid sequence of the natural hormone plus an additional N-terminal methionine.
 
Derivative Type: Bovine somatotropin
Properties: One of the four naturally occurring molecular variants is known as somavubove, C976H1533N265O286S8. Several variants have been produced by recombinant DNA technology: somagrebove, C987H1550N268O291S9, CL-291894, Quest (Am. Cyanamid) ; sometribove, C978H1537N265O286S9; somidobove, C1020H1596N274O302S9, EL-349, LY-177837, Optiflex (Lilly) .
 
Derivative Type: Porcine somatotropin
Trademarks: Somacton (Ferring)
Properties: Several variants have been produced by recombinant DNA technology: somalapor, C977H1527N265O287S7; somenopor, C938H1469N255O275S7; sometripor, C979H1527N265O287S8; somfasepor, C938H1465N257O278S6, Grolean (Pitman-Moore) , Leanstar (Pitman-Moore) .
 
Therap-Cat: Growth stimulant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Growth stimulant. Bovine somatotropin as galactopoietic.
Keywords: Growth Stimulant.

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