Stibine
Title: Stibine
CAS Registry Number: 7803-52-3
Additional Names: Antimony hydride
Molecular Formula: H3Sb
Molecular Weight: 124.78
Percent Composition: H 2.42%, Sb 97.58%
Line Formula: SbH3
Literature References: Conveniently prepd by dissolving zinc-antimony or magnesium-antimony alloy in dil HCl: Hurd, Chemistry of the Hydrides (Wiley, New York, 1952) p 132. Detailed directions (including prepn of the alloy from powdered Sb and Mg): Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry vol. 1, G. Brauer, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1963) pp 606-608. Review of preparative methods: Jolly, Norman, "Hydrides of Groups IV and V" in Preparative Inorganic Reactions vol. 4, W. L. Jolly, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1968) pp 1-58.
Properties: Colorless gas. Intensely poisonous. Disagreeable odor. mp -88°. bp -18.4°. d 2.204 g/ml at bp. Heat of formation +34.68 kcal/mole: Gunn, Green, J. Phys. Chem. 65, 779 (1961). Thermally less stable than arsine. Dec slowly on standing at room temp. Quickly destroyed at 200°. The decomposition products are hydrogen and metallic antimony, generally deposited in the form of a mirror. The gas is slightly sol in water. Freely sol in alcohol, carbon disulfide, other organic solvents. Lethal concn in air for mice: about 100 ppm.
Melting point: mp -88°
Boiling point: bp -18.4°
Density: d 2.204 g/ml at bp
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are headache, weakness; nausea, abdominal pain; lumbar pain, hemoglobinuria, hematuria and hemolytic anemia; jaundice; pulmonary irritation. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 284.
Use: Has been used as fumigating agent.

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