Tetrachloroethane
Title: Tetrachloroethane
CAS Registry Number: 79-34-5
CAS Name: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Additional Names: sym-tetrachloroethane; acetylene tetrachloride
Trademarks: Cellon; Bonoform
Molecular Formula: C2H2Cl4
Molecular Weight: 167.85
Percent Composition: C 14.31%, H 1.20%, Cl 84.49%
Line Formula: Cl2CHCHCl2
Literature References: Manuf by catalytic addition of chlorine to acetylene: Peters, Neumann, Angew. Chem. 45, 261 (1932); by chlorination of ethylene: Pye, US 2752402 (1956 to Dow); by catalytic chlorination of ethane: Joseph, US 2752401 (1956 to Dow); by chlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane: Conrad, US 2725412 (1955 to Ethyl Corp.); Fox, US 2846484 (1958 to Monsanto). Toxicity study: H. F. Smyth et al., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 30, 470 (1969). Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (PB97-121099, 1996) 186 pp.
Properties: Nonflammable, heavy, mobile liquid. Sweetish, suffocating, chloroform-like odor. d425 1.58658. mp -44°. bp760 146.5°. nD20 1.49419. Very sparingly sol in water. At 25° one gram dissolves in 350 ml H2O. Misc with methanol, ethanol, benzene, ether, petr ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, carbon disulfide, dimethylformamide, oils. Has the highest solvent power of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. LD50 orally in rats: 0.20 ml/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -44°
Boiling point: bp760 146.5°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.49419
Density: d425 1.58658
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 0.20 ml/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain; finger tremors; jaundice, hepatitis, tender liver; dermatitis; monocytosis; kidney damage. Potential occupational carcinogen. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 300.
Use: Nonflammable solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, cellulose acetate, rubber, copal, phosphorus, sulfur. As solvent in certain types of Friedel-Crafts reactions or phthalic anhydride condensations. In the manuf of paint, varnish, and rust removers. In soil sterilization and weed killer and insecticide formulations. In the determination of theobromine in cacao. As immersion fluid in crystallography. In the biological laboratory to produce pathological changes in gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidneys. Intermediate in the manuf of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons having two carbon atoms.

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