Theophylline
Title: Theophylline
CAS Registry Number: 58-55-9
CAS Name: 3,7-Dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Additional Names: 1,3-dimethylxanthine
Trademarks: Aerobin (Farmasan); Aerolate (Fleming); Bronchoretard (Astellas); Diffumal (Malesci); Duraphyllin (Merck KGaA); Elixophyllin (Forest); Etheophyl (Lindopharm); Euphylline (Altana); Euphylong (Altana); Lasma (Pharmax); Nuelin (3M); PulmiDur (Pharma-Stern); Pulmo-Timelets (Temmler); Respbid (Boehringer, Ing.); Slo-Phyllin (Merck KGaA); Solosin (Sanofi-Aventis); Teosona (Phoenix); Theobid (Cipla); Theochron (Forest); Theolair (3M); Theon (Klinge); Theograd (Abbott); Theostat (Fabre); Unifyl (Mundipharma); Uniphyl (Purdue Frederick); Uniphyllin (Mundipharma); Xanthium (Galephar)
Molecular Formula: C7H8N4O2
Molecular Weight: 180.16
Percent Composition: C 46.67%, H 4.48%, N 31.10%, O 17.76%
Literature References: Xanthine derivative with diuretic, cardiac stimulant and smooth muscle relaxant activities; isomeric with theobromine, q.v. Small amounts occur in tea. Synthesis starting with dimethylurea and ethyl cyanoacetate: Traube, Ber. 33, 3035 (1900); Grinberg, J. Appl. Chem. USSR 13, 1461 (1940); Gebner, Krebs, J. Gen. Chem. USSR 16, 179 (1946). Bioavailability: K. Svedmyr et al., Allergy 37, 111 (1982). Comprehensive description: J. L. Cohen, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 4, 466-493 (1975). Symposium on clinical experience in asthma and allergy: Am. J. Med. 79(6A), 1-78 (1985); on pharmacology, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy in obstructive pulmonary disease: J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 78(4 Part 2), 669-824 (1986). Review of clinical toxicology: J. D. Truwit, Crit. Care Clin. 7, 639-657 (1991).
Properties: Monohydrate, thin monoclinic tablets from water, mp 270-274°. Bitter taste. pKa (25°): 8.77; pKb: 13.5, 11.5. One gram dissolves in 120 ml water, 80 ml alcohol, about 110 ml chloroform. Sol in hot water, in alkali hydroxides, ammonia, dil HCl or HNO3; sparingly sol in ether. uv max (0.1N NaOH): 274 nm.
Melting point: mp 270-274°
pKa: pKa (25°): 8.77; pKb: 13.5, 11.5
Absorption maximum: uv max (0.1N NaOH): 274 nm
 
Derivative Type: Ethanolamine
CAS Registry Number: 573-41-1
Molecular Formula: C9H15N5O3
Molecular Weight: 241.25
Percent Composition: C 44.81%, H 6.27%, N 29.03%, O 19.90%
Properties: White, crystalline, nonhygroscopic powder contg 75% anhydr theophylline and 25% ethanolamine. Sol in water.
 
Derivative Type: Isopropanolamine
CAS Registry Number: 5600-19-1
Molecular Formula: C10H17N5O3
Molecular Weight: 255.27
Percent Composition: C 47.05%, H 6.71%, N 27.44%, O 18.80%
Literature References: Prepn: Greenbaum, Am. J. Pharm. 109, 550 (1937).
Properties: Prisms from alcohol. Very sol in water. pH of aq solns 9.20.
 
Derivative Type: Lysine salt
Trademarks: Paidomal (Malesci)
 
Derivative Type: Sodium acetate
CAS Registry Number: 8002-89-9
Properties: Equimolar mixture of theophylline sodium and sodium acetate, containing 1H2O. White, odorless, crystalline powder; bitter taste. Sol in about 25 parts water. Insol in alcohol, chloroform or ether.
 
Derivative Type: Sodium glycinate
CAS Registry Number: 8000-10-0
Trademarks: Afonilum (Abbott)
Literature References: Prepn: Krantz et al., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 36, 248 (1947).
Properties: Equimolar mixture of theophylline sodium and glycine. Darkens at 180°. Soly in water 18% w/v. Saturated soln has a pH of 8.7-9.1, d20 1.05, and is stable to carbon dioxide.
Density: d20 1.05
 
Therap-Cat: Bronchodilator.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Bronchodilator.
Keywords: Bronchodilator; Xanthine Derivatives.

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