Toluene
Title: Toluene
CAS Registry Number: 108-88-3
CAS Name: Methylbenzene
Additional Names: toluol; phenylmethane
Trademarks: Methacide
Molecular Formula: C7H8
Molecular Weight: 92.14
Percent Composition: C 91.25%, H 8.75%
Literature References: Obtained mainly from tar oil. Review of mfg processes: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 822-830. Solubility: F. P. Schwarz, Anal. Chem. 52, 10 (1980). Myelotoxic potential: L. Greenburg et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 118, 573 (1942). Comparison with benzene of effects on hematopoiesis and bone marrow metabolism: H. W. Gerarde, AMA Arch. Ind. Health 13, 468 (1956). Acute toxicity: H. F. Smyth et al., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 30, 470 (1969). Evaluation of chronic occupational exposure: H. Tahti et al., Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 48, 61 (1981). Review: M. C. Hoff in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 23 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1983) pp 246-273. Review of reproductive toxicity: J. M. Donald et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 94, 237-244 (1991); of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Toluene (PB2000-108028, 2000) 357 pp.
Properties: Flammable, refractive liq; benzene-like odor. d420 0.866. mp -95°. bp 110.6°. nD20 1.4967. Flash pt, closed cup: 40°F (4.4°C). Soly in water at 23.5°C (w/w): 0.067%. Very slightly sol in water; misc with alc, chloroform, ether, acetone, glacial acetic acid, carbon disulfide. LD50 orally in rats: 7.53 g/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -95°
Boiling point: bp 110.6°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: 40°F (4.4°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4967
Density: d420 0.866
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 7.53 g/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Readily absorbed by inhalation, ingestion and somewhat by skin contact. Direct contact may cause severe dermatitis due to drying and defatting action. May present lung aspiration hazard if ingested. Potential symptoms of acute overexposure by inhalation may include local irritation; CNS excitation and depression. Low concentrations may result in transitory mild upper respiratory tract irritation, mild eye irritation, lacrimation, metallic taste, slight nausea, hilarity, lassitude, drowsiness and impaired balance. High concentrations may cause paresthesia, vision disturbances, dizziness, nausea, headache, narcosis and collapse; death from respiratory failure or sudden ventricular fibrillation. Chronic overexposure by inhalation has been associated with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Syndromes following chronic inhallation involve severe muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric complaints. See Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology vol. 2B, G. D. Clayton, F. E. Clayton, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1994) pp 1326-1332; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section II, p 153, Section III, p 397-404.
Use: In manuf benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic compds; as a solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins; thinner for inks, perfumes, dyes; in the extraction of various principles from plants; as gasoline additive.

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