Toxaphene
Title: Toxaphene
CAS Registry Number: 8001-35-2
Additional Names: Chlorinated camphene; camphechlor; polychlorocamphene
Manufacturers' Codes: Hercules 3956
Trademarks: Alltox; Geniphene; Motox (Tenneco); Phenacide; Phenatox; Strobane-T (Tenneco); Toxakil
Literature References: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivs, having an approx overall empirical formula of C10H10Cl8. Produced by the chlorination of camphene to 67-69% chlorine by weight and made up of compds of C10H8Cl10, C10H18-nCln (mostly polychlorobornanes) and C10H16-nCln (polychlorobornenes and/or polychlorotricyclenes) with n = 6 to 9. Prepn: Buntin, US 2565471 (1951 to Hercules Powder). Isoln of components in crystalline form: Casida et al., Science 183, 520 (1974); eidem, J. Agric. Food Chem. 22, 939 (1974). Acute toxicity data: T. B. Gaines, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14, 515 (1969). Mutagenicity studies: N. K. Hooper et al., Science 205, 591 (1979). Livestock toxicity and tissue residues: L. Penumarthy et al., Vet. Toxicol. 18, 60 (1976). Reviews: Liebmann et al., Arch. Pflanzenschutz 7, 131-150 (1971); F. Korte et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 1583-1601 (1979); M. A. Saleh, Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 118, 1-85 (1990). Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Toxaphene (PB97-121057, 1996) 252 pp.
Properties: Yellow waxy solid, mp 65-90°. Pleasant piney odor. Vapor pressure at 20°: 3´10-7mm Hg. d25 1.630. Log P (octanol/water): 6.44. Dehydrochlorinates in the presence of alkali, prolonged exposure to sunlight, and at temps about 155°. Soly in water: 3 mg/l. Freely sol in aromatic hydrocarbons. Corrosive to iron. LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 90, 80 orally; 1075, 780 dermally (Gaines).
Melting point: mp 65-90°
Log P: Log P (octanol/water): 6.44
Density: d25 1.630
Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 90, 80 orally; 1075, 780 dermally (Gaines)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are nausea, confusion, agitation, tremors, convulsions and unconsciousness; dry, red skin. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 58. See also Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 386-387. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-259
Use: Insecticide. Not recommended for use in dairy barns or on milking animals (Penumarthy).

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