Title: Chamomile
Additional Names: Camomile
Literature References: The term chamomile refers to the dried flowerheads of either of two distinct plants of the family Asteraceae (Compositae): German chamomile, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, also known as Matricaria recutita L. or M. chamomilla, and Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (formerly Anthemis nobilis L.). Both chamomiles have been used in traditional medicines as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory agents. Evaluation of hydroalcoholic extracts for antispasmodic activity: H. B. Forster et al., Planta Med. 40, 309 (1980); for anti-inflammatory activity: A. Tubaro et al., ibid. 50, 359 (1984). Stability of extracts: R. Carle et al., ibid. 55, 540 (1989). HPLC determn of flavones and coumarins in extracts: P. Pietta et al., J. Chromatogr. 404, 279 (1987). Reviews: A. Y. Leung, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980) pp 110-112; C. Mann, E. J. Staba in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology vol. 1 (Oryx Press, 1986) pp 235-280.
Derivative Type: German chamomile
Additional Names: Hungarian chamomile; wild chamomile; Matricaria
Literature References: Habit. Europe, northern and western Asia; naturalized in North America. Cultivated in Hungary, Romania, Germany. Constit. 0.24-1.9% volatile oil; flavonoids including apigenin, luteolin, quercetin; coumarins such as herniarin, umbelliferone; proazulenes (matricin, matricarin, etc.); phenolic carboxylic acids (anisic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic); polysaccharide mucilage.
Derivative Type: German chamomile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8002-66-2
Additional Names: Matricaria oil
Literature References: Extracted from flower heads by steam distillation. Constit. (-)-a-bisabolol (up to 50%), bisabolol oxides, chamazulene, farnesene. Review of constituents: B. M. Lawrence, Perfum. Flavor. 12, 35-52 (1987).
Properties: Deep ink-blue oil. d 0.91-0.95. Ester value: <40. Acid value: 5 to 50. Sol in propylene glycol. Insol in glycerin, mineral oil.
Density: d 0.91-0.95
Derivative Type: Roman chamomile
Additional Names: English chamomile; garden chamomile
Literature References: Habit. Southern and western Europe; naturalized in North America. Cultivated in Great Britain, Belgium, France, U.S. Constit. up to 1.75% volatile oil; up to 0.6% sesquiterpene lactones of the germacranolide type (mainly nobilin, 3-epinobilin); flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, apiin, etc.); phenolic carboxylic acids (caffeic, ferulic); coumarins; and thiophene derivatives.
Derivative Type: Roman chamomile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8015-92-7
Additional Names: Oil of anthemis
Literature References: Extracted from flowerheads by steam distillation. Constit. esters of angelic and tiglic acids (~85%), chamazulene, a-pinene, farnesol.
Properties: Blue oil. n20 1.44-1.45. [a]20 -1 to +4°. Ester value: 250 to 310. Acid value <15. Sol in mineral oil and most fixed oils; sol with haziness in propylene glycol. Practically insol in glycerin.
Optical Rotation: [a]20 -1 to +4°
Index of refraction: n20 1.44-1.45
Use: Flowers in herbal teas. Extracts and oils in perfumery; as flavor in foods and alcoholic beverages; hair dye.
Therap-Cat: Carminative; vulnerary. Extracts and oils as topical anti-inflammatory.

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