Cyclonite
Title: Cyclonite
CAS Registry Number: 121-82-4
CAS Name: Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine
Additional Names: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine; sym-trimethylenetrinitramine; 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-s-triazine; hexogen; royal demolition explosive; RDX; T4
Molecular Formula: C3H6N6O6
Molecular Weight: 222.12
Percent Composition: C 16.22%, H 2.72%, N 37.84%, O 43.22%
Literature References: Prepd by treating methenamine with fuming nitric acid: Henning, DE 104280 (1899); Hale, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2754 (1925). Two moles of cyclonite can be obtained from one mole of methenamine, if ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride are added: Bachmann, Sheehan, ibid. 71, 1842 (1949). Manuf by nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine: Ruth, US 3049543 (1962 to Olin Mathieson). Physical data relating to detonation, explosion, and blasting action: ACS Monograph Series no. 139, entitled "Science of High Explosives," M. A. Cook, Ed. (Reinhold, New York, 1958). Structure: Wood, Proc. 4th Int. Meet. Mol. Spectrosc. 2, 955 (1962). Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for RDX (PB95-264255, 1995) 145 pp.
Properties: Orthorhombic crystals from acetone, mp 205-206°. d420 1.82. Very explosive. One gram dissolves in 25 ml acetone. Slightly sol in methanol, ether, ethyl acetate, glacial acetic acid. Practically insol in water, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide.
Melting point: mp 205-206°
Density: d420 1.82
 
Derivative Type: Mixture with pentaerythritol tetranitrate
CAS Registry Number: 52441-47-1
Additional Names: Semtex
Literature References: Plastic explosive manufactured in two forms, Semtex H and Semtex A, which differ in the proportion of the two components RDX and pentaerythritol tetranitrate, q.v. Used in the destruction of PanAm Flight 103 in Dec. 1988 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Identification by MS: J. Yinon, Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 21, 46 (1988); by time of flight-MS: A. Marshall et al., Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 8, 521 (1994). Description of incidents of illicit use: A. W. Feraday in Adv. Anal. Detect. Explosives, J. Yinon, Ed. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1993) pp 67-72. Analysis of Semtex H and A: J. R. Hobbs, ibid. pp. 409-427.
 
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes and skin; headache, irritability, fatigue, weakness, tremor, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, convulsions. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 86.
Use: High explosive; rat poison.

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