Ethyl Alcohol
Title: Ethyl Alcohol
CAS Registry Number: 64-17-5
CAS Name: Ethanol
Additional Names: absolute alcohol; anhydrous alcohol; dehydrated alcohol; ethyl hydrate; ethyl hydroxide
Molecular Formula: C2H6O
Molecular Weight: 46.07
Percent Composition: C 52.14%, H 13.13%, O 34.73%
Line Formula: C2H5OH
Literature References: Manuf: by fermentation of starch, sugar, and other carbohydrates; from ethylene, acetylene, sulfite waste liquors, and synthesis gas (CO + H); by hydrolysis of ethyl sulfate, and oxidation of methane. Toxicity: G. S. Wiberg et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 16, 718 (1970). Embryotoxicity in mammals: N. A. Brown et al., Science 206, 573 (1979). Possible mechanism for actions of ethanol on the brain: G. Aston-Jones et al., Nature 296, 857 (1982). Ethanol-induced chromosomal abnormalities in mice: M. H. Kaufman, ibid. 302, 258 (1983). Disruption of reproductive function in female primates following alcohol self-administration: N. K. Mello et al., Science 221, 677 (1983). Review of metabolism and toxicity: C. S. Lieber in Reviews in Biochemical Toxicology vol. 5, E. Hodgson et al., Eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1983) pp 267-312; of pharmacology: L. Pohorecky, J. Brick, Pharmacol. Ther. 36, 335-427 (1988); of hepatotoxicity: C. S. Lieber, L. M. DeCarli, J. Hepatol. 12, 394-401 (1991). General reviews: P. Baud, "Ethyl Alcohol Industry" in Grignard, Traité de Chimie Organique vol. 5 (Masson, 1937) pp 841-975; Zabel, Chem. Ind. (now Chem. Week) 64, 212 (1949); Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 355-364; P. D. Sherman, P. R. Kavasmaneck, "Ethanol" in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 9 (Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1980) pp 338-380.
Properties: Clear, colorless, very mobile, flammable liquid; pleasant odor; burning taste. Absorbs water rapidly from air. d420 0.789. bp 78.5°. mp -114.1°. nD20 1.361. Flash pt, closed cup: 13°C. Miscible with water and with many organic liquids. Keep tightly closed, cool, and away from flame! LD50 in young, old rats (g/kg): 10.6, 7.06 orally (Wiberg). The terms 95% alcohol and alcohol (when used alone) refer to a binary azeotrope having a distillate composition of 95.57% ethyl alcohol (by wt) and bp 78.15°. Alcohol, USP is specified as containing not less than 92.3% and not more than 93.8% by weight, corresponding to not less than 94.9% and not more than 96.0% by vol of C2H5OH at 15.56°. d2525 0.810; d 0.816 at 15.56° (60°F). Diluted alcohol, prepd from equal vols 95% alcohol and water, contains about 41.5% by wt or about 48.9% by vol of C2H5OH. d2525 0.931; d 0.936 at 15.56° (60°F). See U.S.P. XXI, 22, 1530 (1985).
Melting point: mp -114.1°
Boiling point: bp 78.5°; bp 78.15°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: 13°C
Index of refraction: nD20 1.361
Density: d420 0.789; d2525 0.810; d 0.816 at 15.56° (60°F); d2525 0.931; d 0.936 at 15.56° (60°F)
Toxicity data: LD50 in young, old rats (g/kg): 10.6, 7.06 orally (Wiberg)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, nose; headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, fatigue, narcosis; cough; flushing, rapid pulse, sweating; mental excitement or depression, impaired perception, incoordination, stupor, coma; liver damage; anemia; reproductive and teratogenic effects. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 132; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 166-171.
Use: Most ethyl alcohol is used in alcoholic beverages in suitable dilutions. Other uses are as solvent in laboratory and industry, in the manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals (rubbing compds, lotions, tonics, colognes), in perfumery, in organic synthesis. Octane booster in gasoline. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
Therap-Cat: Antiseptic.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antiseptic. To destroy nerve tissue. Solvent and dehydrating agent.
Keywords: Antiseptic/Disinfectant; Alcohols.

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