Potassium Nitrate
Title: Potassium Nitrate
CAS Registry Number: 7757-79-1
CAS Name: Nitric acid potassium salt
Molecular Formula: KNO3
Molecular Weight: 101.10
Percent Composition: K 38.67%, N 13.85%, O 47.48%
Literature References: Occurs in nature as the mineral saltpeter or niter. Polymorphism: F. C. Kracek, J. Phys. Chem. 34, 225 (1930). Prepn from potassium chloride: D. L. Reed, K. G. Clark, Ind. Eng. Chem. 29, 333 (1937); by molten salt technique: R. W. Pfeiffer et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 15, 949 (1967); by solvent separation of strong acids: A. Eyal et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 24, 387 (1985). Viscosity: R. E. Wellman et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data 11, 156 (1966). Heat capacity: E. W. Dewing, ibid. 20, 221 (1975). Clinical evaluations in tooth hypersensitivity: M. Hodosh, J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 88, 831 (1974); T. Nagata et al., J. Clin. Periodontol. 21, 217 (1994); S. C. Frechoso et al., ibid. 30, (2003).
Properties: Colorless transparent prisms, white granular or cryst powder; cooling, saline, pungent taste. d 2.11; mp 333°; dec at 400° with evolution of O2. One gram dissolves in 2.8 ml water, 0.5 ml boiling water, 620 ml alc. Sol in glycerol; insol in abs alc. Dissolves in water with a lowering of the temp. pH ~7. LD50 orally in rabbits: 1.166 g anion/kg, Dollahite, Rowe, Southwest. Vet. 27, 246 (1974).
Melting point: mp 333°
Density: d 2.11
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rabbits: 1.166 g anion/kg, Dollahite, Rowe, Southwest. Vet. 27, 246 (1974)
CAUTION: Ingestion of large quantities may cause violent gastroenteritis. Prolonged exposure to small amts may produce anemia, methemoglobinemia, nephritis.
Use: In fireworks, fluxes, pickling meats; production of nitric acid; manuf glass, matches, gunpowder; freezing mixtures. Agricultural fertilizer. Preservative in foods. In dentrifices to reduce tooth hypersensitivity.
Therap-Cat: Diuretic.

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