Acrolein
Title: Acrolein
CAS Registry Number: 107-02-8
CAS Name: 2-Propenal
Additional Names: acrylic aldehyde; acrylaldehyde; acraldehyde
Trademarks: Aqualin (Shell); Magnacide (Baker)
Molecular Formula: C3H4O
Molecular Weight: 56.06
Percent Composition: C 64.27%, H 7.19%, O 28.54%
Line Formula: CH2=CHCHO
Literature References: Prepd industrially by passing glycerol vapors over magnesium sulfate heated to 330-340°. Lab prepn by heating a mixture of anhydr glycerol, acid potassium sulfate and potassium sulfate in the presence of a small amount of hydroquinone and distilling in the dark: H. Adkins, W. H. Hartung, Org. Synth. coll. vol. I, 15 (1941). Formation from glycerol by the action of B. amaracrylus: Voisenet, Compt. Rend. 188, 941, 1271 (1929); by B. welchii: Humphreys, J. Infect. Dis. 35, 282; Chem. Zentralbl. 1925, II, 309. Toxicity study: H. F. Smyth et al., Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 4, 119 (1951). Review: L. G. Hess et al., in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 1 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1978) pp 277-297. Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Acrolein (PB91-180307, 1990) 157 pp.
Properties: Flammable liquid with pungent odor. mp -88°. d0 0.8621; d20 0.8389; d50 0.8075. bp760 52.5°; bp200 17.5°; bp100 2.5°; bp60 -7.5°; bp1.0 -64.5°. nD19 1.4022. Sol in 2 to 3 parts water; in alcohol, ether. Flash pt, open cup: <0°F (-18°C). Vapor pressure at 20°: 210 mm Hg. Unstable, polymerizes (especially under light or in the presence of alkali or strong acid) forming disacryl, a plastic solid. Absorption spectrum: Lüthy, Z. Phys. Chem. 107, 291, 298 (1923). LD50 orally in rats: 0.046 g/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -88°
Boiling point: bp760 52.5°; bp200 17.5°; bp100 2.5°; bp60 -7.5°; bp1.0 -64.5°
Flash point: Flash pt, open cup: <0°F (-18°C)
Index of refraction: nD19 1.4022
Density: d0 0.8621; d20 0.8389; d50 0.8075
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 0.046 g/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin and mucous membranes; decreased pulmonary function; delayed pulmonary edema; chronic respiratory disease. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 6. See also Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section II, p 186.
Use: Manuf colloidal forms of metals; making plastics, perfumes; warning agent in methyl chloride refrigerant. Has been used in military poison gas mixtures. Used in organic syntheses. Aquatic herbicide.

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