ACTH
Title: ACTH
CAS Registry Number: 9002-60-2
CAS Name: Corticotropin
Additional Names: adrenocorticotrop(h)in; corticotrophin; adrenocorticotrop(h)ic hormone of the pituitary gland
Trademarks: Acethropan (Hoechst); Acortan (Ferring); Acthar (RPR); Acton (Ferring); Cortiphyson (Promonta); Cortrophin (Organon); Isactid (Ferring)
Literature References: Pituitary hormone which stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical steroids and induces growth of the adrenal cortex. Occurs also in female human urine and in serum of pregnant mares. Isoln procedure from swine pituitaries: Sayers et al., J. Biol. Chem. 149, 425 (1943); Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 52, 199 (1943); from sheep pituitaries: Li et al., J. Biol. Chem. 149, 413 (1943); Li, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 2124 (1952); from human pituitaries: Pickering et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 74, 763 (1963). Purification: Johnson, US 3124509 (1964 to Upjohn). Corticotropin is a single chain polypeptide containing 39 amino acids. The first 24 residues are identical in all species. In vivo studies show that this portion of the peptide chain is responsible for the biological activity and that the remaining residues, while not necessary for the hormonal action, are essential in the species immunological specificity of ACTH. The term a-ACTH is used to distinguish it from the pepsin- or acid-degraded product, b-ACTH. Prepn of active cleavage products by hydrolysis and simultaneous dialysis: Wettstein, Benz, US 2734015 (1956 to Ciba). Amino acid sequence of bovine ACTH: Li et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2587 (1958); proposed structure of human ACTH: Lee et al., J. Biol. Chem. 236, 2970 (1961). Revised amino acid sequences of porcine and human ACTH: Riniker et al., Nature New Biol. 235, 114 (1972). Revised sequences of ovine and bovine ACTH: Li, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 835 (1972). Synthesis of the revised human corticotropin: Sieber et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 55, 1243 (1972); solid phase synthesis: Yamashiro, Li, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 1310 (1973).
Properties: White powder. Freely sol in water. Partly precipitated at the isoelectric point (pH 4.65-4.80). Appreciably soluble in 60 to 70% alcohol or acetone. Almost completely precipitated in 2.5% trichloroacetic acid soln. Also precipitated from dilute soln by 20% sulfosalicylic acid and by 5% lead acetate soln. Solns are stable to heat. An aq soln buffered to pH 7.5 may be put in a boiling water bath for at least 120 minutes. In 0.10 molar HCl an 0.2% soln retains its biological potency when kept at 100° for 60 min, but in 0.10 molar NaOH the activity is lost within 30 min. At 60° at 0.2% soln at pH 10.8 maintains its potency for 60 min. In general the substance is more stable in acid soln. Pure ACTH has 150 to 200 potency units per mg. The biological activity is not destroyed by digestion with pepsin, and hydrolysis products have the biological activity of ACTH. One U.S.P. unit or one international unit or one Armour unit or one potency unit denotes the same activity.
 
Derivative Type: Corticotrophin zinc hydroxide suspension
Trademarks: Cortrophine-Z (Organon)
Properties: ACTH absorbed on zinc hydroxide. Used as an aqueous suspension.
 
Therap-Cat: Adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Stimulates glucocorticoid production.
Keywords: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.

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