Title: Adrenomedullin
Literature References: Hypotensive peptide originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma; subsequently found in all tissues with highest levels in heart, kidney, lung and adrenal gland. Highly conserved among species, human form is a 52-amino acid peptide; shares some sequence homology with calcitonin gene related peptide and amylin, q.v. Plasma levels are elevated in patients with hypertension and heart failure. Biological effects include vasodilation, diuresis and increased cardiac output; also exhibits antiproliferative and anti-apoptotic effects in the myocardium and stimulates angiogenesis. Isoln and hypotensive activity: K. Kitamura et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 192, 553 (1993). RIA determn in plasma: L. K. Lewis et al., Clin. Chem. 44, 571 (1998). Review of biosynthesis, pharmacology and bioactivities: J. P. Hinson et al., Endocr. Rev. 21, 138-167 (2000). Series of articles on physiological roles: Regul. Pept. 112 1-196 (2003). Review of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential: D. C. Bunton et al., Pharmacol. Ther. 103, 179-201 (2004); S. A. Hamid, G. F. Baxter, ibid. 105, 95-112 (2005).

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