Cinnamon
Title: Cinnamon
Additional Names: Ceylon cinnamon
Literature References: Tropical evergreen tree, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl. (syn. C. verum Presl.), Lauraceae; cultivated for the aromatic bark which is widely used in cooking and in traditional medicine. Leaves and root bark are also used for their essential oil. Habit. Sri Lanka and southeast Asia. Saigon cinnamon is obtained from the bark of C. loureirii Nees. Cassia, also known as Chinese cinnamon, is often used as a substitute; obtained from the related species, C. cassia Presl. (syn. C. aromaticum Nees). Constit. Volatile oil (up to 4%), tannins, catechins, pre-anthocyanidins, resins, mucilage, gum, sugars, calcium oxalate, coumarins, and the insecticidal compounds, cinnzeylanin and cinnzeylanol. Comprehensive description: J. Thomas, P. P. Duethi in Handbook of Herbs and Spices, K. V. Peter, Ed., (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001) pp 143-153. Analysis of volatile constituents: U. M. Senanayake et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 822 (1978). Authentication method: M. J. Cikalo et al., J. Planar Chromatogr. 5, 135 (1992). Review of cinnamon: J. Barnes et al., Herbal Medicines (Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2nd Ed., 2002) pp 135-136; of cassia: idem, ibid. pp 112-113. Review: A. Y. Leung, S. Foster, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients, (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, 2nd Ed., 2003) pp 167-170.
 
Derivative Type: Cinnamon bark oil
CAS Registry Number: 8015-91-6
Additional Names: Oil of cinnamon, Ceylon
Literature References: Volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the dried inner bark of C. zeylanicum. Constit. Complex mixture of components chiefly, cinnamaldehyde (60-75%), cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, caryophyllene, linalool.
Properties: Yellow liquid with a spicy burning taste and the characteristic odor of cinnamon. d2525 1.010-1.030. nD20 1.573-1.591. Rotation between -2° and 0°. Sol in most fixed oils, propylene glycol, in 3 vols 70% alcohol. Insol in glycerin, mineral oil.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.573-1.591
Density: d2525 1.010-1.030
 
Derivative Type: Cinnamon leaf oil
Additional Names: Oil of cinnamon leaf
Literature References: Volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and twigs of C. zeylanicum. Constit. Eugenol (80-88%), other components similar to bark oil.
Properties: Light to dark brown liquid with spicy cinnamon-clove odor and taste. d2525 1.030-1.050. nD20 1.529-1.537. Rotation between -2° and +1°. Sol in most fixed oils, propylene glycol, in 1.5 vols 70% alcohol. Sol with cloudiness in mineral oil. Insol in glycerin.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.529-1.537
Density: d2525 1.030-1.050
 
Derivative Type: Cassia oil
CAS Registry Number: 8007-80-5
Additional Names: Oil of cassia; oil of Chinese cinnamon
Literature References: Volatile oil obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs of C. cassia. Constit. Cinnamaldehyde (75-90%), salicylaldehyde, methylsalicylaldehyde, methyleugenol.
Properties: Yellow or brown liquid with characteristic odor and taste. Darkens and thickens upon aging or exposure to air. d2525 1.045-1.063. nD20 1.602-1.614. Rotation between -1° and +1°. Sol in glacial acetic acid, in 2 vols 70% alcohol.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.602-1.614
Density: d2525 1.045-1.063
 
Use: Used extensively as spice and flavoring in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals. Ingredient in spice blends such as garam masala.
Therap-Cat: Carminative, antiseptic, astringent.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Carminative.

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