Title: Conotoxins
Additional Names: Ctx
Literature References: Family of related peptide neurotoxins isolated from the venom of genus Conus, the marine cone snail. Wide variety of venoms are found, almost all of which are under 30 amino acids in length. The most common classes are w-and d-conotoxins which target voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels respectively; a-conotoxins which inhibit acetylcholine receptor; m-conotoxins which block sodium channels. Review characterizing binding of w-Ctx: E. Sher, F. Clementi, Neuroscience 42, 301-307 (1991); and use: K. Takeda, J. J. Nordmann, Methods Neurosci. 8, 202-222 (1992). Review of a-CTX isolation and binding: J. M. McIntosh, "a-Conotoxins and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors", in Biochemical Aspects of Marine Pharmacology, P. Lazarovici et al., Eds. (Alaken Inc., Fort Collins, CO, 1996) pp 28-34. Review: B. M. Olivera et al., ACS Symp. Ser. 418, 256-278 (1990).
Use: Biochemical probes for ion channels.

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