Furfural
Title: Furfural
CAS Registry Number: 98-01-1
CAS Name: 2-Furancarboxaldehyde
Additional Names: 2-furaldehyde; pyromucic aldehyde; artificial oil of ants; "furfurol"
Molecular Formula: C5H4O2
Molecular Weight: 96.08
Percent Composition: C 62.50%, H 4.20%, O 33.30%
Literature References: Occurs in some essential oils. Prepd industrially from pentosans which are contained in cereal straws and brans. Laboratory prepn from corncobs: R. Adams, V. Voorhees, Org. Synth. coll. vol. I, 280 (2nd ed., 1941). May also be prepd from pyridine. Toxicity study: P. M. Jenner et al., Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 2, 327 (1964).
Properties: Colorless oily liq. Peculiar odor, somewhat resembling the odor of benzaldehyde. Turns yellow to brown on exposure to air and light and resinifies (the polymerization is greatly accelerated by hot alkali). d425 1.1563. bp760 161.8°; bp100 103°; bp20 67.8°; bp1.0 18.5° mp -36.5°. Volatile in steam. nD20 1.5261. Absorption spectrum: Purvis, J. Chem. Soc. 97, 1655 (1910). Sol in 11 parts water; very sol in alcohol, ether. Flash pt, closed cup, 140°F (60°C); open cup, 155°F (68°C). Lower explosive limit: 2.1% by vol in air. Autoignition temp 797°F (392°C). Keep in airtight container and protect from light. LD50 orally in rats: 127 mg/kg (Jenner).
Melting point: mp -36.5°
Boiling point: bp760 161.8°; bp100 103°; bp20 67.8°; bp1.0 18.5°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup, 140°F (60°C); open cup, 155°F (68°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.5261
Density: d425 1.1563
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 127 mg/kg (Jenner)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin and upper respiratory system; headache; dermatitis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 150.
Use: In the manufacture of furfural-phenol plastics such as Durite; in solvent refining of petroleum oils; in the prepn of pyromucic acid. As a solvent for nitrated cotton, cellulose acetate, and gums; in the manuf of varnishes; for accelerating vulcanization; as insecticide, fungicide, germicide; as reagent in analytical chemistry. In the synthesis of furan derivatives.

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