Hydrogen Peroxide
Title: Hydrogen Peroxide
CAS Registry Number: 7722-84-1
Additional Names: Hydrogen dioxide; hydroperoxide
Trademarks: Albone; Hioxyl (Quinoderm); Lensan A (CIBA Vision); Mirasept (CIBA Vision); Oxysept (Allergan); Pegasyl (SweVet)
Molecular Formula: H2O2
Molecular Weight: 34.01
Percent Composition: H 5.93%, O 94.09%
Literature References: First reported by Thenard in 1818; prepd by treating barium peroxide with acid. Manuf of aqueous solns: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 487-495; R. Powell, Hydrogen Peroxide Manufacture (Noyes Dev. Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1968) 221 pp. Production of anhydr hydrogen peroxide by continuous fractional crystn: Crewson, Ryan, US 2724640 (1955 to Becco). Production and green reactions in liquid CO2, q.v.: D. Hâncu et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 757 (2003). Use in green oxidation reactions: R. Noyori et al., Chem. Commun. 2003, 1977. Reviews: ACS Monograph Series no. 128, entitled "Hydrogen Peroxide," W. C. Schumb, Ed. (Reinhold, New York, 1955) 759 pp; Ebsworth et al., in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry vol. 2, J. C. Bailar, Jr. et al., Eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973) pp 771-778; J. R. Kirchner in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 13 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1981) pp 12-38.
Properties: Colorless, rather unstable liquid; bitter taste. Distillable in high vacuum. May dec violently if traces of impurities are present. d0 1.463. mp -0.43°. bp 152°. Misc with water; sol in ether. Insol in petr ether. Decomposed by many organic solvents. Marketed as a soln in water in concns of 3-90% by wt. Solns of hydrogen peroxide gradually deteriorate and are usually stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials. Agitation or contact with rough surfaces, metals or many other substances accelerates decomposition. Rapidly dec by alkalies, finely divided metals; the presence of mineral acid renders it more stable. Strong oxidizing agent! Keep protected from light and in a cool place.
Melting point: mp -0.43°
Boiling point: bp 152°
Density: d0 1.463
Derivative Type: 3% Solution
Additional Names: Oxydol
Properties: Contains 2.5-3.5% by wt of H2O2 = 8-12 vols oxygen. Colorless, slightly acid liq. d ~1.00.
Density: d ~1.00
Derivative Type: 30% Solution
Properties: Contains 30% by wt of H2O2 = 100 vols of oxygen. Clear, colorless liquid. d ~1.11. Miscible with water. Now replacing the 3% soln for industrial uses; diluted to the required strength immediately before use. It also is used for making the 3% soln.
Density: d ~1.11
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, nose and throat; corneal ulceration; erythema, vesicles on skin; bleaching of hair. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 168.
Use: Environmentally friendly oxidant. Bleaching agent in foods, textiles, and personal care products; oxidant in wastewater treatment. A 90% soln is used in rocket propulsion.
Therap-Cat: Antiseptic; disinfectant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Topical antiseptic and cleansing agent (as a dilute soln).
Keywords: Antiseptic/Disinfectant; Peroxides/Permanganates.

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