Kaempferol
Title: Kaempferol
CAS Registry Number: 520-18-3
CAS Name: 3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
Additional Names: 3,4¢,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone; nimbecetin; pelargidenolon 1497; populnetin; rhamnolutein; robigenin; swartziol; trifolitin
Molecular Formula: C15H10O6
Molecular Weight: 286.24
Percent Composition: C 62.94%, H 3.52%, O 33.54%
Literature References: Plant flavonoid isolated from Delphinium consolida L., Ranunculaceae: A. G. Perkin, E. J. Wilkinson, J. Chem. Soc. 81, 585 (1902); from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae): Dunlap, Wender, Anal. Biochem. 4, 110 (1962); from stems and seeds of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., Convolvulaceae: K. W. Gopinath et al., J. Sci. Ind. Res. 21B, 601 (1962), C.A. 58, 7134e (1963). Identity with swartziol: M. R.-R. Paris, L. Bézanger-Beauquesne, Compt. Rend. 242, 1761 (1956). Structure: S. von Kostanecki, A. Rozycki, Ber. 34, 3721 (1901). Total synthesis: Y.-H. Lu et al., Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 15, 477 (1980), C.A. 94, 174808a (1981). Convenient synthesis: M. Ichikawa et al., Org. Prep. Proced. Int. 14, 183 (1982). Mutagenicity studies: J. T. MacGregor, L. Jurd, Mutat. Res. 54, 297 (1978); A. A. Hardigree, J. L. Epler, ibid. 58, 231 (1978). HPLC determination in soybean: J. D. Gaynor et al., Chromatographia 25, 1049 (1988).
Properties: Yellow needles, mp 276-278°; also reported as light yellow powder from ethanol-water, mp 278-280° (dec) (Ichikawa). uv max: 265, 365 nm. Slightly sol in water; sol in hot alcohol, ether or alkalies.
Melting point: mp 276-278°; mp 278-280° (dec) (Ichikawa)
Absorption maximum: uv max: 265, 365 nm
 
Derivative Type: 3,7-Dirhamnoside
Additional Names: Kaemferitrin; lespedin
Molecular Formula: C27H30O14
Molecular Weight: 578.52
Percent Composition: C 56.05%, H 5.23%, O 38.72%
Literature References: Isoln from the leaves of Indigo arrecta Benth., Leguminosae: Perkin, J. Chem. Soc. 91, 435 (1907); from leaves of Trichosanthus cucumeroides Maxim., Cucurbitaceae: Nakaoki, Morita, J. Pharm. Soc. Jpn. 77, 108 (1957). Identity with lespedin: Hatlori, Nature 168, 788 (1952).
Properties: Crystals from dil alc, mp 201-203°. Slightly sol in boiling water and cold alcohol.
Melting point: mp 201-203°
 
Derivative Type: 3-Glucoside
Additional Names: Astragalin
Molecular Formula: C21H20O11
Molecular Weight: 448.38
Percent Composition: C 56.25%, H 4.50%, O 39.25%
Literature References: From Podophyllum peltatum L. and P. emodi Wall., Berberidaceae. Isoln and structure: von Wartburg, Kuhn, Experientia 21, 67 (1965).
Properties: Crystals from methanol, mp 175-178°. [a]D20 -16.9° (c = 0.45 in methanol).
Melting point: mp 175-178°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -16.9° (c = 0.45 in methanol)

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