Title: Nitroethane
CAS Registry Number: 79-24-3
Molecular Formula: C2H5NO2
Molecular Weight: 75.07
Percent Composition: C 32.00%, H 6.71%, N 18.66%, O 42.63%
Line Formula: CH3CH2NO2
Literature References: Obtained by vapor phase nitration of ethane with HNO3: Reidel, Oil Gas J. 54, no. 36, 110-114 (1956). Laboratory prepn by treating 1.5 moles sodium nitrite with 1 mole sodium ethyl sulfate at 125-130° in the presence of 0.0625 moles potassium carbonate: Desseigne, Giral, Mem. Poudres 34, 49-53 (1952), C.A. 49, 836 (1955). Similar procedure according to the equation EtOSO2OEt + NaNO2 ® EtOSO2ONa + EtNO2: McCombie et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1944, 24.
Properties: Oily liquid; pleasant odor. d2525 1.041; d2020 1.052. Flash pt, open cup: 106°F (41.11°C). mp ~-50°. bp 114-115°. Undergoes thermal decompn at 335-382°. Heating value (liq): 7,720 Btu/lb. Lower limit of flammability in air = 4.0% by volume. Viscosity (25°): 0.661 cP. nD20 1.3917; nD24.3 1.39007. Soly in water: 4.5 ml/100 ml H2O at 20°. Miscible with methanol, ethanol, ether. Sol in chloroform, aq solns of alkalies. Has high heat of absorption. Sudden absorption of the anhydr liq or gas on activated carbon or Hopcalite may result in flames: Chem. Eng. News 30, 2344 (1952).
Melting point: mp ~-50°
Boiling point: bp 114-115°
Flash point: Flash pt, open cup: 106°F (41.11°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.3917; nD24.3 1.39007
Density: d2525 1.041; d2020 1.052
CAUTION: Potential symptom of overexposure by direct contact is dermatitis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 228. Potential symptom of overexposure by ingestion is methemoglobinemia. See G. Shepherd et al., Clin. Toxicol. 36, 613 (1998).
Use: Solvent, artificial fingernail glue remover; in organic syntheses. Experimentally as liq propellant.

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