Oil of Vetiver
Title: Oil of Vetiver
Additional Names: Vetiver oil; oleum Andropogonis muricati; vetyver oil; khas khas oil; khus oil; cus cus oil; vetivert oil; vetiver oil Java; vetiver oil Haiti; vetiver oil Reunion (Bourbon)
Literature References: Distilled from roots of vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf., (Andropogon muricatus Retz., Anatherum zizanioides (L.) Hitch. & Chase, Gramineae), grown chiefly in Java, India, Reunion Island and Haiti. The constituents of vetiver oil vary according to the place of origin. Java and Reunion vetiver oils may contain 8-35% (usually 15-27%) sesquiterpene ketones of which a- and b-vetivones, q.v. have been isolated. The content of vetivenols (vetiverols, vetiver alcohols) varies from 45 to 65%. Other isolated components are vetivenyl vetivenate, vetivenic acid (C15H22O2), palmitic acid, benzoic acid, and vetivene (C15H24). Major constituents of Indian vetiver oil are khusol, khusitol, khusinol. Review of chemical studies: Anh, Fetizon, Am. Perfum. Cosmet. 80, 40 (1965). Biogenetically significant components: Kaiser, Naegeli, Tetrahedron Lett. 1972, 2009; Paknikar et al., ibid. 1975, 2973. Isoln and synthesis of zizanal and epizizanal, two insect repellent constituents, from Javanese vetiver oil: S. C. Jain et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 23, 4639 (1982).
Properties: Brown to reddish-brown viscous oil. Aromatic to harsh, woody odor which improves on aging. d1515 0.990-1.040. nD20 1.5200-1.5280. [a]D20 +15 to +45°. Ester value after acetylation 110-165. Soluble in 1-3 volumes of 80% alcohol, becoming slightly turbid upon further dilution. Sol in all proportions in most fixed oils, diethyl phthalate, benzyl benzoate, mineral oil (slight turbidity). Practically insol in glycerol and propylene glycol. Fairly stable to dilute acids and weak alkalies; unstable to strong acids and alkalies. Should be stored in a cool place and protected from light. Refs: Kretchmar, Pictet, Chimia 8, 123 (1954); Pfau, Plattner, Helv. Chim. Acta 22, 640 (1939); Guenther, The Essential Oils vol. IV (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950) p 156.
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 +15 to +45°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.5200-1.5280
Density: d1515 0.990-1.040
Use: In soap and perfumery formulations.

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