Oil Palm
Title: Oil Palm
Additional Names: African oil palm
Literature References: Tropical tree, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Arecaceae (alt. Palmae), bearing large bunches of plum-sized fruit. Grown primarily for the edible oils obtained from the fruit and seed. Habit. West Africa, Malaysia. The closely related American oil palm, E. oleifera (Kunth) Cortés, is grown in Central and South America and is also used. Review of cultivation, oil production, characteristics and uses: J. A. Cornelius, Prog. Chem. Fats Other Lipids 15, 5-27 (1977); Y. Basiron, J. Oleo Sci. 50, 295-303 (2001). Review of safety assessment of oils: W. Johnson, Jr., Int. J. Toxicol. 19, Suppl. 2, 7-28 (2000).
 
Derivative Type: Palm oil
CAS Registry Number: 8002-75-3
Literature References: Obtained from the fleshy orange-red mesocarp of the fruit. Constit. Fatty acids, primarily palmitic (44%), oleic (39%), and linoleic (10%); carotenoids, esp. a- and b-carotene; tocopherols, esp. g-tocotrienol; sterols, esp. b-sitosterol. May be refined to remove color and odor components and separated into olein and stearin fractions. Review of biochemistry, toxicology and role in nutrition: D. O. Edem, Plant Foods Human Nutr. 57, 319-341 (2002).
Properties: Crude oil is deep orange in color with characteristic sweetish odor. Semisolid at 21-27°; mp 27-50°. d5025 0.89-0.92. n40D 1.453-1.459. Sapon. no. 196-209. Iodine no. 46-60.
Melting point: mp 27-50°
Index of refraction: n40D 1.453-1.459
Density: d5025 0.89-0.92
 
Derivative Type: Palm olein
Properties: Liquid oil, mp 21.6°. d50 0.91-0.92. n 1.47. Sapon. no. 189-198.0. Iodine no. 55.0-61.54.
Melting point: mp 21.6°
Index of refraction: n 1.47
Density: d50 0.91-0.92
 
Derivative Type: Palm stearin
Properties: Solid, mp 44.5-56.2°. d50 0.88-0.89. n 1.45. Sapon. no. 193-206. Iodine no. 21.6-49.4.
Melting point: mp 44.5-56.2°
Index of refraction: n 1.45
Density: d50 0.88-0.89
 
Derivative Type: Palm kernel oil
CAS Registry Number: 8023-79-8
Literature References: Obtained from seed by mechanical expression or solvent extraction. Constit. Fatty acids, primarily lauric (48%), myristic (16%) and oleic (15%); sterols, esp. b-sitosterol; triterpene alcohols; hydrocarbons. Review of properties and uses: T. P. Pantzaris, M. J. Ahmed, Palm Oil Devel. 35, 1123 (2001).
Properties: Colorless to brownish yellow oil, solidifying to a white to yellowish fat. Crude oil has a strong, characteristic taste and odor and is most often refined before use. mp 25-30°. d4025 0.900-0.913. nD40 1.4495-1.4515. Sapon. no. 244-254. Iodine no. 14-20.
Melting point: mp 25-30°
Index of refraction: nD40 1.4495-1.4515
Density: d4025 0.900-0.913
 
Use: Cooking and frying oil. In margarines, shortenings, non-dairy creamers, whipping creams; as cocoa butter substitute. In manuf of soaps, oleochemicals. In cosmetics, personal care products as skin conditioner, viscosity increasing agent, solvent.

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