Opium
Title: Opium
Additional Names: Gum opium; crude opium
Literature References: Air-dried, milky exudation from incised, unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum L., or P. album Mill., Papaveraceae. Habit. of the plant: Asia Minor, Persia, China, Africa, India; cultivated in the Balkan States, Hungary, Southern Russia. In Japan the strain cultivated from the production of opium is called "Ikkanshu." Appearance and sources: Chem. Eng. News 32, 2701 (1954). Constit. About 20 alkaloids, constituting about 25% of the opium; meconic acid, some lactic and sulfuric acids, sugar, resinous and waxy-like substances; 12-25% water. Morphine is the most important alkaloid and occurs to the extent of 10-16%, noscapine 4-8%, codeine 0.8-2.5%, papaverine 0.5-2.5%, thebaine 0.5-2%.
 
Derivative Type: Deodorized opium
Additional Names: "Denarcotized" opium
Properties: Powdered opium freed from its odor and nauseating substances by treatment with petr ether. Contains 10-10.5% anhydr morphine.
 
Derivative Type: Granulated opium
Properties: Opium dried at not above 70°, reduced to a 16-50 mesh powder and adjusted with lactose or other inert diluent to contain 10-10.5% anhydr morphine.
 
Derivative Type: Powdered opium
Properties: Opium dried at a temp not above 70°, finely powdered amd adjusted with lactose or other inert diluent to contain 10-10.5% anhydr morphine.
 
NOTE: This is a controlled substance: 21 CFR, 1308.12.
Use: Largely for the manuf of morphine, codeine and other opium alkaloids.
Therap-Cat: Analgesic (narcotic). Hypnotic.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Analgesic (narcotic); antidiarrheal; antitussive.
Keywords: Analgesic (Narcotic); Sedative/Hypnotic.

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