Polyoxyethylene Fatty Acid Esters
Title: Polyoxyethylene Fatty Acid Esters
Additional Names: Polyethylene glycol esters of fatty acids; PEG fatty acid esters; POE fatty acid esters; ethoxylated fatty acid esters; macrogol fatty acid esters
Literature References: Nonionic surfactants prepared commercially by esterification of fatty acids with ethylene oxide or with polyethylene glycol. Of the general structure RCOO(CH2CH2O)nH or RCOO(CH2CH2O)nOCR where R is a long chain alkyl group or mixture of alkyl groups. Wide range of properties achieved by changing the hydrophobic fatty acid segment and/or varying the degree of polymerization of the hydrophilic polyoxyethylene segment. Trademarks for some commercially available series of compounds include Emerest (Emery) (2600, 2700 series), Emulsynt (Van Dyk) , Ethofat (Akzo) , Lipopeg (Lipo) , Mapeg (PPG) , Myrj (ICI) , Nopalcol (Henkel) , Pegosperse (Lonza) , Renex 20 (ICI) , Varonic LI (Witco) . Review of prepn, properties and uses: W. B. Satkowski et al., "Polyoxyethylene Esters of Fatty Acids" in Nonionic Surfactants, M. J. Schick, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1967) pp 142-174.
Properties: Liquids, soft solids, solids or flakes. Solubility properties depend on length of polyoxyethylene (POE) segment added to a specific fatty acid. Sol in oil and hydrocarbon solvents when <8 ethylene oxide units are added. Soly in water begins when 12-15 ethylene oxide units are added. Specific gravity and viscosity increase with increasing ethylene oxide content.
 
Derivative Type: Polyoxyl 8 stearate
Additional Names: Polyethylene glycol 400 monostearate; PEG-400 monostearate; POE (8) stearate; macrogol ester 400
Trademarks: Emerest 2711 (Emery); Lipopeg 4-S (Lipo); Myrj 45 (ICI); Mapeg 400 MS (PPG); Pegosperse 400-MS (Lonza)
Literature References: C17H35COO(CH2CH2)nH where the average value of n is 8. Prepn and properties: R. L. Birkmeier, J. D. Brandner, J. Agric. Food Chem. 6, 471 (1958).
 
Derivative Type: Polyoxyl 40 stearate
Additional Names: Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate; POE (40) monostearate
Trademarks: Myrj 52 (ICI); Myrj 52S (ICI); Pegosperse 1750-MS (Lonza)
Properties: The average number of oxyethylene units is 40. Waxy, white to light tan solid; odorless or faint fat-like odor. Sol in water, alc, ether, acetone. Insol in mineral oil, vegetable oils.
 
Use: As antistats, emulsifiers, defoamers, wetting agents, solubilizers, conditioning agents, lubricants, detergents. Have wide range of cosmetic, pharmaceutical and other industrial applications. Polyoxyl 8 and 40 stearates as pharmaceutic aid (surfactant).

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