Succinic Acid
Title: Succinic Acid
CAS Registry Number: 110-15-6
CAS Name: Butanedioic acid
Additional Names: amber acid; ethylenesuccinic acid; Bernsteinsäure (German)
Trademarks: Asuccin
Molecular Formula: C4H6O4
Molecular Weight: 118.09
Percent Composition: C 40.68%, H 5.12%, O 54.19%
Line Formula: HOOCCH2CH2COOH
Literature References: Observed by Agricola in 1546, in the distillate from amber. Occurs in fossils, fungi, lichens, etc. Prepn from acetic acid: Coffman et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2864 (1958). Manuf: Crosby, Braunwarth, US 2862028 (1958 to Pure Oil); Chafetz, Patterson, US 2978473 (1961 to Texaco). Toxicity study: H. F. Smyth et al., Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 4, 119 (1951).
Properties: Odorless, monoclinic prisms; very acid taste; d 1.56; mp 185-187°; bp 235° with partial conversion into the anhydride. One gram dissolves in 13 ml cold water, 1 ml boiling water, 18.5 ml alcohol, 6.3 ml methanol, 36 ml acetone, 20 ml glycerol, 113 ml ether. Practically insol in benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, petr ether. pH of 0.1 molar aq soln 2.7.
Melting point: mp 185-187°
Boiling point: bp 235°
Density: d 1.56
 
Derivative Type: Potassium salt trihydrate
Additional Names: Potassium succinate
Molecular Formula: C4H4K2O4.3H2O
Molecular Weight: 248.31
Percent Composition: C 19.35%, H 4.06%, K 31.49%, O 45.10%
Properties: Hygroscopic crystalline powder. d 1.564. Freely sol in water; the aq soln is practically neutral. Keep tightly closed.
Density: d 1.564
 
Derivative Type: Diethyl ester
Additional Names: Ethyl succinate
Molecular Formula: C8H14O4
Molecular Weight: 174.19
Percent Composition: C 55.16%, H 8.10%, O 36.74%
Properties: Colorless, clear liq; faint, pleasant odor. d420 1.040. bp 217-218°. mp -21°. nD20 1.4201. Insol in water. Miscible with alcohol, ether. LD50 orally in rats: 8.53 g/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -21°
Boiling point: bp 217-218°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4201
Density: d420 1.040
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 8.53 g/kg (Smyth)
 
Derivative Type: Dimethyl ester
Additional Names: Methyl succinate
Molecular Formula: C6H10O4
Molecular Weight: 146.14
Percent Composition: C 49.31%, H 6.90%, O 43.79%
Properties: Colorless liquid. d418 1.1202. mp 19.5°. bp760 195.3°; bp25 103.5°. Sol in 120 parts water, 35 parts alcohol.
Melting point: mp 19.5°
Boiling point: bp760 195.3°; bp25 103.5°
Density: d418 1.1202
 
Use: Manuf lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates; in photography.

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