Title: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
CAS Registry Number: 118-96-7
Additional Names: TNT; a-trinitrotoluol; sym-trinitrotoluene; 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; trotyl; tolit; trilit
Molecular Formula: C7H5N3O6
Molecular Weight: 227.13
Percent Composition: C 37.02%, H 2.22%, N 18.50%, O 42.26%
Literature References: Prepn by nitration of toluene with mixed acid (HNO3 + H2SO4) in three steps or by continuous flow according to the Schmid-Meissner and Biazi processes: Swift, Tittensor, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 59, 92 (1940); Johnston in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 9, 104 (1960). Physical constants and applications: Lothrop, Handrick, Chem. Rev. 44, 419-445 (1949); ACS Monograph Series no. 139, entitled "The Science of High Explosives," M. A. Cook, Ed. (Reinhold, New York, 1958). Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (PB95-264297, 1995) 208 pp.
Properties: Monoclinic rhombohedra from alcohol. The commercial crystals (needles) are yellow. mp 80.1°. d420 1.654. Burns at 295° when not confined. Can be distilled under reduced pressure. Vapors are toxic. Dipole moment 1.37. Very sparingly sol in water: About 0.01% at 25°, one gram dissolves in 700 ml of boiling water. Sol in acetone, benzene. Less sol than 2,4,6-trinitrophenol in alcohol, ether, carbon disulfide. Reacts vigorously with reducing agents.
Melting point: mp 80.1°
Density: d420 1.654
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of skin, mucous membranes; liver damage, jaundice; cyanosis; sneezing; coughing, sore throat; peripheral neuropathy, muscle pain; kidney damage; cataract; sensitization dermatitis; leukocytosis; anemia; cardiac irregularities. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 322.
Use: High explosive in military munitions. Must be detonated by a high velocity initiator such as nitramine or by efficient concussion.

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