Title: 2,4-Dinitrophenol
CAS Registry Number: 51-28-5
Additional Names: a-Dinitrophenol
Trademarks: Aldifen
Molecular Formula: C6H4N2O5
Molecular Weight: 184.11
Percent Composition: C 39.14%, H 2.19%, N 15.22%, O 43.45%
Literature References: Prepd by the action of NaOH on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Crystal and molecular structure: F. Iwasaki, Y. Kawano, Acta Crystallogr. 33B, 2455 (1977). Toxicity data: E. W. Schafer, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21, 315 (1972). Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols (PB95-264339, 1995) 262 pp.
Properties: Yellowish to yellow orthorhombic crystals. d 1.683. mp 112-114°. Sublimes when carefully heated. Volatile with steam. Very sparingly sol in cold water; soly in water (g/100 g of satd soln): at 54.5° = 0.137; at 75.8° = 0.301; at 87.4° = 0.587; at 96.2° = 1.22. Soly at 15° (g/100 g soln): Ethyl acetate 15.55; acetone 35.90; chloroform 5.39; pyridine 20.08; carbon tetrachloride 0.423; toluene 6.36. Sol in alcohol, benzene, aq alkaline solns. Forms crystalline sodium salt which is sol in water. LD50 orally in rats: 30 mg/kg (Schafer).
Melting point: mp 112-114°
Density: d 1.683
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 30 mg/kg (Schafer)
CAUTION: Rapidly absorbed through GI tract, respiratory tract and intact skin. Potential symptoms of overexposure are marked fatigue, tremendous thirst, profuse sweating, flushing of face; nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea; restlessness, anxiety, excitement; rise in body temperature; tachycardia, hyperpnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, muscle cramps; kidney and liver injury. See Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 156-159.
Use: Manuf dyes, diaminophenol, wood preservative, insecticide; also as indicator. pH range: 2.6 colorless, 4.4 yellow. Reagent for the detection of potassium and ammonium ions.

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