Superoxide Dismutase
Title: Superoxide Dismutase
CAS Registry Number: 9054-89-1
Additional Names: SOD
Literature References: Family of naturally occurring metalloenzymes that act as free oxygen radical scavengers and protect against the deleterious effects of biologically generated superoxide oxygen radicals (O2.-) by dismutation to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) + molecular oxygen (O2). Three metallotypes have been described; distinguished by the metal found at the active site: cupro-zinc containing (Cu/Zn SOD), manganese containing (Mn SOD), and iron containing (Fe SOD). Widely distributed, present in almost all aerobic organisms and some anaerobes. Isoln and purification of Cu/Zn SOD from bovine erythrocytes and identity with erythrocuprein (hemocuprein): J. M. McCord, I. Fridovich, J. Biol. Chem. 244, 6049 (1969); of Mn SOD from E. coli: B. B. Keele et al., ibid. 245, 6176 (1970); of Fe SOD from E. coli: F. J. Yost, Jr., I. Fridovich, ibid. 248, 4905 (1973). Enzyme immunoassay for determn of human Cu/Zn SOD: N. Kurobe et al., Clin. Chim. Acta 187, 11 (1990); of human Mn SOD: idem et al., ibid. 192, 171 (1990). Review of biological activity and therapeutic use: A. Petkau, Cancer Treat. Rev. 13, 17-44 (1986); of protective effect vs radiation injury: eidem, Br. J. Cancer 55, Suppl. 8, 87-95 (1987); of structure and function: J. V. Bannister et al., Crit. Rev. Biochem. 22, 111-180 (1987); of chemical and biological characteristics: B. A. Omar et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 23, 109-161 (1992). Books: Superoxide and Superoxide Dismutases, A. M. Michelson et al., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1977) 568 p.; Superoxide Dismutase vols. I, II, III, L. W. Oberley, Ed. (CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, 1982, 1982, 1985).
Derivative Type: Orgotein
Trademarks: Artrolasi (Lenza); Ormetein (rescinded); Ontosein (Diagnostic Data); Oxinorm (Zambeletti); Palosein (Diagnostic Data); Peroxinorm (Grñenthal)
Literature References: Water-soluble Cu/Zn SOD produced from beef liver. Mol wt ~33,000 with a compact conformation maintained by about 4 gram atoms of chelated divalent metal. Isoln: W. Huber, ZA 6902983; idem, US 3579495 (1969, 1971 both to Diagnostic Data). Purification: idem, DE 2101866; idem, US 3624251 (both 1971 to Diagnostic Data). Toxicology: S. Carson et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 26, 184 (1973). Clinical pharmacokinetics: G. Jadot et al., Clin. Pharmacokinet. 28, 17 (1995). Clinical studies in osteoarthritis: K. Lund-Olesen, K. B. Menander-Huber, Arzneim.-Forsch. 33, 1199 (1983); in Peyronie's disease: G. Primus, Int. Urol. Nephrol. 25, 169 (1993). Clinical use of liposomal form vs radiation-induced fibrosis: S. Delanian et al., Radiother. Oncol. 32, 12 (1994). Therapeutic use in animals: D. E. Breshears et al., Mod. Vet. Pract. 55, 85 (1974); S. Ahlengard et al., Equine Vet. J. 10, 122 (1978); J. R. Coffman et al., J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 174 261 (1979). Review of clinical trials: L. Flohé, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 84, 123-131 (1988).
Properties: LD50 in mice (mg/kg): >5800 s.c., >60 i.p., >4000 i.v.; in rats (mg/kg): >400 s.c., >284 i.p. (Jadot).
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice (mg/kg): >5800 s.c., >60 i.p., >4000 i.v.; in rats (mg/kg): >400 s.c., >284 i.p. (Jadot)
Derivative Type: Pegorgotein
CAS Registry Number: 155773-57-2
Additional Names: PEG-SOD
Manufacturers' Codes: Win-22118
Trademarks: Dismutec (Sterling Winthrop)
Literature References: Orgotein polyethylene glycol conjugate; mol wt 71-105 kDa. Prepn and anti-inflammatory activity: P. S. Pyatak et al., Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 29, 113 (1980). Pharmacokinetics: E. Boccu et al., Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 14, 113 (1982). Toxicology: A. T. Viau et al., J. Free Radicals Biol. Med. 2, 283 (1986). Clinical trials in head injury: J. P. Muizelaar, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 366, 389 (1994).
Derivative Type: Recombinant human form
Additional Names: RhSOD
Literature References: Pharmacokinetics: C. Tsao et al., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 50, 713 (1991). Clinical study in renal transplantation: W. Land et al., Transplantation 57, 211 (1994). Review of cloning and expression: D. Tuoati, Free Radical Biol. Med. 5, 393-402 (1988).
Use: Research probe for O2.- in biological and chemical reactions.
Therap-Cat: Anti-inflammatory; radioprotective agent.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Anti-inflammatory; antirheumatic.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory (Nonsteroidal).

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