Black Pepper
Title: Black Pepper
Literature References: Dried, unripe fruit of Piper nigrum L., Piperaceae. White pepper consists of the seed only, with the ripe fruit removed. Widely used as a cooking spice and in traditional medicine for dyspepsia. Habit. Southern India; cultivated in tropical Asia and the Caribbean. Constit. Pungent principles, predominantly piperine, q.v., piperylin, piperolein A and B, cumaperine; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol glycosides; volatile oil. HPLC determn of piperine content: M. Rathnawathie, K. A. Buckle, J. Chromatogr. 264, 316 (1983). GC-MS analysis of constituents and antifungal and antioxidant properties: G. Singh et al., J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 1878 (2004). Insecticidal activity: H. C. F. Su, J. Econ. Entomol. 70, 18 (1977); W. P. Scott, G. H. McKibben, ibid. 71, 343 (1978). Review of medicinal uses: J. Gruenwald et al., PDR for Herbal Medicines (Medical Economics, Montvale, 3rd Ed., 2004) pp 105-106.
 
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8006-82-4
Additional Names: Black pepper oil; oil of pepper
Literature References: Obtained from dried, unripened fruit. Constit. Complex mixture containing predominantly b-caryophyllene, limonene, sabinene, b-bisabolene, a-copaene, b-pinene.
Properties: Colorless or slightly green liquid. d2525 0.864-0.884. Angular rotation: -1 to -23°. nD20 1.479-1.488. Sol in most fixed oils, mineral oil, propylene glycol; sparingly sol in glycerin. Sol in 3 vols 95% alcohol.
Optical Rotation: Angular rotation: -1 to -23°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.479-1.488
Density: d2525 0.864-0.884
 
Use: Pungently aromatic condiment in foods.

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